Fluid Flow in a Duct of Varying Cross-Section Report

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  • Topic: Fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle, Static pressure
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  • Published : February 21, 2012
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City University London

Fluid Flow in a Duct of Varying Cross-Section Report:

Khurshidanjum Pathan, Group A1a

Abstract:

The experiment is carried out to demonstrate the relation between pressure and fluid velocity in a duct of varying cross-section by using Bernoulli’s equation and continuity equation.(1) Bernoulli’s equation relates the pressure to the velocity for a fluid of constant density flowing in a Venturi tube. Static head, normalised head and percentage of errors were calculated using the result of the data. On the base of calculation its being analysed that in the contraction flow, velocity and dynamic head increases with decreased static pressure and dynamic pressure. While in the convergent flow, velocity decreases with increased static pressure and dynamic pressure.

Introduction:

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Figure (1) sketch of Apparatus used to investigate the validity of Bernoulli equation (3)

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Figure (2) Apparatus used to investigate the validity of Bernoulli’s equation

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Figure (3) Water pump Figure (4) Venturi pipe

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Figure (5) Manometer tubes Figure (6) Flow meter

Figure (1)-(2) shows the apparatus used for the experiment consist of a acrylic duct of varying cross-section known as a Venturi as shown in Figure (4). The duct has 10 wall tappings for the measurement of static pressure in both convergent and divergent area of a duct. This duct is connected to a flow meter on its right side, where the flow rate is being set as shown in the figure (6). On its left side apparatus is being connected to manometer through 10 different pipes and readings at each of the tapping for each flow rate are being recorded as shown in figure (5). Pressure of water is being controlled by attached hand pump by adjusting valve as shown in figure (3)

| | | | 44 l/min | 34 l/min | 24 l/min | |Tapings No. |Distance X/mm |Diameter d/mm |Reading |Reading |Reading | | | | |mm |mm |mm | |1 |0 |41 |1187 |1120 |1066 | |2 |80 |41 |1186 |1118 |1067 | |3 |122 |28 |1134 |1086 |1049 | |4 |164 |15.5 |303 |589 |806 | |5 |238 |21.4 |896 |943 |976 | |6 |312 |27.8 |1012 |1010 |1009 | |7 |386 |34.1 |1055 |1037 |1025 | |8 |460 |40.5 |1076 |1050 |1032 | |9 |534 |40.5 |1080 |1054 |1034 | |10 |607 |40.5 |1083 |1054 |1035 |

Table 1.1 Dimension of cross-section and flow meter reading at each taping

Objectives:

➢ Demonstrate the relation between pressure and fluid velocity in a duct of...
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