Flooding Causes and Prevention

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❖ To analyze the formation reason of flood. What should we do to prevent the happening of flood?

Flood is overflow of the huge amount of water onto the normally dry land. Flood occurs when the overflowing water submerges land and causes deluge. It is a cruel and violent expression of water.

Floods are often deadly, damaging and devastating. They kill lots of people, damage houses and crops, and cause extensive destruction. In broader terms, floods are of two types; Natural floods and Catastrophic floods.

Natural floods are the floods that are caused naturally by the overflow of the huge volume of water, from rivers, lakes, oceans, or by heavy rains or downpours, hurricanes, cyclones, or tsunamis, etc. Natural floods could be Riverine floods – caused by rivers; estuarine floods – caused by a combination of sea tidal surges and storm-force winds; or Coastal floods – caused by cyclones, hurricanes and tsunamis. These are one of the most common natural disasters.

Catastrophic floods are the floods that are caused by some significant and unexpected events, for instance dam breakages.

Heavy rainfalls are one of the major causes of floods. The level of water in rivers or lakes rises due to heavy rainfalls. When the level of water rises above the river banks or dams, the water starts overflowing, which causes floods. The water overflows to the areas adjoining to the rivers, lakes or dams, causing floods or deluge. The flood water causes havoc and great destruction in the areas where it flows. Floods occur more in the regions that get heavy rainfalls.

Floods are also caused due to heavy snow melting. Global temperature is rising due to global warming. The rising temperature makes the snow caps melt faster. Continuous and fast melting snow raises the level of oceanic water, which consequently raises the level of water in rivers, and when the level of water in rivers rises above the river banks, it causes floods.

Generally, floods occur more in the...
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