Flood Monitoring

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
It is an integral part of the study. It may also be a required part of proposals. The main purpose is to analyze scientific works by other researchers that the researchers used for investigation critically. It is also secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Basically this part of the study focuses on the foreign and local types of water level monitoring system and also the articles involved and necessary for the improvement of the study. And devices which utilized an Ultrasonic sensor, GPRS module and Microcontroller are also included. FOREIGN LITERATURE

Rainfall, Stream, and River Level Monitoring System
The Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District and the Cities of Napa and St. Helena operate and maintain a network of weather stations that provide real time rainfall data and stream and river levels throughout Napa County, which can be accessed by clicking on the following link:  Napa Valley Regional Rainfall and Stream Monitoring System.  The website presents data from a network of some 50 gages that record rainfall and stream and river levels.  Website users can easily see current stream and river levels, compared to monitor stage and warning stage levels.  The website also has the capability to provide graphs showing data from October 2001 to the present.

The website provides:
•Real-time rainfall intensity and other local weather data; •Current water levels in area creeks and the Napa River with monitor and flood levels; •Historical data for gage sites oeprated by various Napa County agencies dating back to October 2001; •Ability to view data within multiple map views or view lists of gage sites from North Bay regional down to selected portions of the Napa Valley; •Graphing and tabular data downloading functions for selectable time periods between October 2001 and the present; •Links to popular regional weather and river level forecast sites for up-to-the-minute sever weather and flooding outlook. This web interface incorporations data collected at gage sites maintained by the Cities of Napa and St. Helena, Napa County, and the Flood Control and Water Conservation District, referred to as the Alert System, as well as weather and stream gaging sites operated in the area by other agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey (USGS), local airports or other nearby cities and counties.  During the summer of 2006, the local gage network was upgraded to include satellite connectivity as a backup to existing radio data transmission.  This enables the collection, storage and display of data gathered in Napa County via the Internet.

How to use the website:
To access the Real Time data, do the following:
1. Click on Maps on the System Menu on the upper-left of the page. 2. Click on one of the green dots (weather station locations) on the map to jump to the data page for that weather station. 3. On the data page, click the sensor to view the data; e.g., Stage, Rain Accumulation, etc.

The website is managed by OneRain, Inc., under contract to the Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District. http://www.countyofnapa.org/Pages/DepartmentContent.aspx?id=4294968667 What is GLOSS?

The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). GLOSS aims at the establishment of high quality global and regional sea level networks for application to climate, oceanographic and coastal sea level research. The programme became known as GLOSS as it provides data for deriving the 'Global Level of the Sea Surface'. The main component of GLOSS is the 'Global Core Network' (GCN) of 290 sea level stations around the world for long term climate change and...
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