Five Major Divisions of the Brain

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Five Major Divisions of the Brain

By | July 2011
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The five major divisions of the brain are the Telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres), the Diencephalon, the Mesencephalon (midbrain), the Metencephalon, and the Myelencephalon (medulla). The Telencephalon is the largest portion of the brain. This portion of the brain is in charge of voluntary movements, sensory input, and complex cognitive process (learning, speaking, and problem solving skills). The Diencephalon is composed of two structures, the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The thalamus holds and sensory relay nuclei which are in charge of receiving signals from the sensory receptors, processing them and then transmitting them to the appropriate areas of sensory cortes. They hypothalamus holds the important job of regulating the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. It also works with the optic chiasm to control the optic nerves. The Mesencephalon had two divisions the tectum and tegmentum. The tectum has two pairs of bumps, the colliculi. The inferior colliculi have auditory function and the superior colliculi have visual function. The tegmentum is reticular formed with tracts of passages and contains three colorful structures that biopsychologists use; grey, black, and red. These colorful sections contribute too many functions: sleep, attention, and movement, maintenance of muscle tone, cardiac, circulatory, and respiratory reflexes. The grey matter has a role in the effects of opiate drugs or pain reducers. The black and red areas are both important in the sensorimotor system. The Metencephalon houses many tracts and part of the reticular formation. The two divisions that make up this portion of the brain are the pons and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is important to sensorimotor structure, if this portion of the brain is damaged a person looses the ability to control movements and change movements. The Myelencephalon is the most posterior division of the brain and is composed of tracts that carry signals between the brand and the body. It has...
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