Fitness

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CHAPTER

5
Building Muscular Strength and Endurance
OBJECTIVES
Define muscular strength and muscular endurance and describe the benefits of each. Discuss the basic structure and function of skeletal muscle. Outline the fitness and wellness improvements that occur with regular resistance training. Assess your muscular strength and muscular endurance. Set appropriate muscular fitness goals. Describe common resistance-training methods and programs and create an exercise plan compatible with your goals and lifestyle. Identify and observe precautions for safe resistance training. Describe the benefits and side effects of supplement use, including anabolic steroids.

CASE STUDY
Gina
“Hi, I’m Gina. I’m from San Francisco and I’m a sophomore majoring in economics. I’m taking a fitness and wellness class this semester, and this week we’re starting the section on muscular fitness. I’m curious about it because I’ve never lifted weights before! I like to go hiking, and I take yoga classes from time to time, but I wouldn’t call myself an athlete. Does it really make sense for someone like me to start a strength-training program?”

case
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hether you’re a beginner like Gina or an athlete interested in conditioning, this chapter will answer common questions about muscular fitness, explain the many benefits of strength training, and give you the tools for designing a program that is custom-made for you. Muscular fitness is the ability of your musculoskeletal system to perform daily and recreational activities without undue fatigue and injury. Muscular fitness involves having adequate muscular strength and endurance. Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to contract with maximal force. It describes how strong a muscle is or how much force it can exert. Exercise

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muscular fitness The ability of your musculoskeletal system to perform daily and recreational activities without undue fatigue and injury muscular strength The ability of a muscle to contract with maximal force muscular endurance The ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over an extended period of time resistance training Controlled and progressive stressing of the body’s musculoskeletal system using resistance (i.e., weights, resistance bands, body weight) exercises to build and maintain muscular fitness

professionals often measure muscular strength by determining the maximum weight a person can lift at one time. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly over an extended period of time. It describes how long you can sustain a given type of muscular exertion. One way that fitness professionals measure muscle endurance is by determining the maximum weight a person can lift 20 times consecutively. You can build better muscular strength and endurance through resistance training. Resistance training is also referred to as weight training or strength training and can be done with measured weights, body weight, or other resistive equipment (i.e., exercise bands or exercise balls). Resistance exercises stress the body’s musculoskeletal system, which enlarges muscle fibers and improves neural control of muscle function, resulting in greater muscular strength and endurance. Are you already participating in a resistancetraining program? If so, you are not alone. According to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), resistance training is the fourth most popular leisure-time activity for adults over the age of 18.1 It is more popular than jogging, aerobics, and many other recreational sports (but is less popular than walking, working in the yard, or stretching.) In 2004, 17.5 percent of women and 21.5 percent of men reported regular resistance training.2 These numbers have climbed steadily since 1998 but still do not approach the Healthy People 2010 national

GET FIT, STAY WELL!

health objective: that 30 percent of adults participate in strength-training exercises at least two times per week. If you are not...
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