Chechen republic is located in North-East part of Caucasus. The republic has the common borders with Republic of Ingushetia, Republic North Osetiya Alaniya, with Stavropolskiy Kray of Russia, Dagestan and Republic of Georgia. Oil is the main resource of Chechnya and its product stock evaluates in 50 million tons.
In 2005 the population size of Chechnya was 1 1414 000. More than three-quarters of Chechens population are lived in rural areas. The most significant population are Chechens (93,5 %), Russians, Cumycs, Avars, Nogays, Ingushs are presented also.
In 1 November 1991 Chechen Republic proclaimed its sovereignty and independency. However its independent status is not recognized neither by world community nor Russian Federation, which considers Chechnya as its constitutional part.
2. CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT
Chechen Conflict of 1994—1996 — warfare of Russian forces in Chechnya and some neighboring places of Russian North Caucasus with purpose to prevent Chechnya’s withdrawal from Russian Federation. Frequently calls as “First Chechen War”, the conflict was officially named by Russian government as “measures on maintenance of public order”. The previous events and conflict itself are characterized by huge losses in killed and wounded among civil population, military forces and law-enforcement agencies. It also leads to stampede of Russians and other nations from Chechnya.
In spite of some military progress of Russian forces, the conflict results in withdrawal of Federal troops from Chechnya, the ravages of war and losses from both sides; Independence of Chechnya de-facto until the second phase of the conflict and many terrorist acts in Russia.
This work contains the analysis of the First Chechen War 1994-1996, factors which unleash the war and its consequences. The analysis bases on theory of Sean Byrne and Neal Carter Six Social Forces of Ethnoterritorial Politics, proposes six ethnic “variables,” which they label as “socio-cubism” and that constitute a potent basis of ethnicity:
4) Political institutions and non-institutional behaviour 5) Economics
6) Psycho-cultural factors
This work also answers on question “Why Russian leadership initiated military action against in 1994 and no other constituent part of the Federation”.
2.1. Historical factors
There is a long history of war conflict in North Caucasus. In 1784 Sheikh Mansur (chief of a biggest Muslim order) proclaimed Gazzawat (holy war against the invading Russian Empire). It was the starting point in continuous Russia-Chechen conflict.
There was more then semicentennial warefare in 19th century, which was included in history as Caucasian war. Imam Shamil was the key figure in that war. He again proclaimed Gazzawat as a “Holy war against infidels”. In spite of desperate resistance of Chechens, Russians began to settle in the lowlands, particularly after oil was discovered near Grozny in 1893 and thousands of oil workers were sent to the city from European parts of Russian Empire .
Soviet authorities also understood important geopolitical and economic role, which North Caucasus played for USSR. Chechen Autonomous Oblast received status of an Autonomous Republic after joining with Ingush Autonomous Oblast in 1934. This period is characterized by growing of nationalist movement among the significantly enlarged population of ethnic groups in North Caucasus. In 1944 the Chechens became the largest group on a compact territory to be deported en masse by Stalin to northern Kazakhstan for 13 years. This deportation was recognized by Euro parliament as genocide.
Collapse of USSR became the reason of political crisis in Chechnya, crisis which developed to full-scale war from 1994 till 1996 with escalation of the conflict in 1999.
2.2. Religious factors
The most population of Chechnya traditionally...