First Aid

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INTRODUCTION
First aid is the immediate assistance or treatment given to someone injured or suddenly taken ill before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor, or other appropriate qualified persons. It is a skill, based on knowledge, training and experience. First aid training is important as it is relevant at home, work place or industries and any other place. The term “FIRST AIDER” is usually applied to someone who has completed a theoretical and practical instruction course, and passed a professionally supervised examination. The standard first aid certificate awarded by St John Ambulance, St Andrews Ambulance Association and the British Red Cross is proof of all round competence. First aid must be administered as soon as possible. In case of critical injury, a few minutes can make the difference between complete recovery and loss of life. First aid requires rapid assessment of victims to determine whether life threatening conditions exists. First aid measures depend on the victims need and the provider’s level of knowledge and skill. Knowing what not to do in an emergency is as important as knowing what to do. DEFINITION OF TERMS

FIRST AIDER: someone who has completed a theoretical and practical instruction course, and passed a professionally supervised examination. EMERGENCY: A serious, unexpected and potentially dangerous situation requiring immediate action or an unexpected event that must be dealt with urgently. CASUALTY: somebody who has a fatal accident, or receives a serious injury or suddenly falls ill. ACCIDENT: An unpleasant incident that happens unexpectedly.

INCIDENT: An event, the occurrence of dangerous or exciting event. AMBULANCE: A vehicle for taking sick or injured people to and from hospital. HOSPITAL: An institution providing medical treatment and nursing care for sick or injured people. IMMOBILIZE: Prevent from moving or operating as normal.

SIGN: What you see on the casualty.
SYMPTOMS: What the casualty feels and tells you.

FIRST AID
DEFINITION: - immediate assistance or treatment given to an injured person or someone who suddenly falls ill before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor, or other appropriate qualified persons. It is also the first care given to a casualty or someone who suddenly falls ill before the arrival of a doctor or before taking the person to the hospital. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF FIRST AID

To save life.
To promote quick recovery.
To prevent the situation from getting worse
To save time.
To save cost.
PRINCIPLES OF FIRST AID
The golden rule is ‘’ first do no harm’’ while applying the principle of calculated risk. You should use treatment that is most likely to be beneficial to a casualty but do not use a doubtful treatment just for the sake of doing something. Assess the situation

Observe what has happened quickly and calmly.
Look for dangers to yourself and to the casualty.
Never put yourself at risk.
Make area safe.
Protect the casualty from danger.
Be aware of your limitations.
Assess all casualties and give emergency aid
Assess each casualty to determine treatment priorities, and treat those with life-threatening conditions first.

Get help
Quickly ensure that any necessary specialist has been summoned and is on the way

QUALITIES OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER
Be resourceful at all times.
Be sympathetic and empathetic to your casualty.
Be smart and confident.
Be observant.
Be bold.
Be gentle
SCOPE OF FIRST AID
This is the systematic way of administering first aid;-
DIAGNOSIS:-
History
Signs
Symptoms
CARE:- This should be given in order of priority i.e. breathing, bleeding, burns and broken bones Transportation- Arrange to convey the casualty without delay to his home, suitable shelter, hospital and or summon a doctor in any serious case.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE
This is another procedure taken to ensure that appropriate first aid and safety is observed while assisting a...
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