Have you ever been to an aerial fireworks show at an amusement park, baseball game, Fourth of July celebration, or on New Year's Eve and wondered about how all the impressive colors and sounds are produced? People everywhere enjoy the fantastic explosions and the brilliant light displays of fireworks. However, these spectacles are much more than just a form of entertainment. Each firework launched into the sky is a precisely formed assembly of chemicals and fuel, carefully calibrated to produce a particular effect â a red chrysanthemum spray accompanied by a powerful explosion, or a blue strobe, for example. Understanding how the contents of a firework produce the impressive variety of colors, forms, and sound intensities requires only a simple understanding of chemical reactions.
Fireworks generate three very noticeable forms of energy: a tremendous release of sound, bright light, and heat. The tremendous booms heard at ground level are the result of the rapid release of energy into the air, causing the air to expand faster than the speed of sound. This produces a shock wave, a sonic boom.
The colors are produced by heating metal salts, such as calcium chloride or sodium nitrate, that emit characteristic colors. The atoms of each element absorb energy and release it as light of specific colors. The energy absorbed by an atom rearranges its electrons from their...
...Chemistry of Fireworks
By Anuradha Sahu
Everyone enjoys the amazing firework shows on the Fourth of July with the beautiful vibrant colors and sparks every year. Fireworks have been part of this world for a very long time. They have been used for enjoyment and for signalling purposes. Every culture has their own significance and use of fireworks. But all fireworks have something in common; the chemistry that makes them work. No matter where you find them, they are made up of the same compounds and are made the same way. There are ma
The first use of chemical energy was in Greece, âGreek Fireâ which was first reported in the 7th century A.D. It was a blend of sulfur, organic fuels, and saltpeter that generated flames and dense fumes when ignited. Around 1000 AD a scientist recognized the unique properties of another blend of chemicals called the black powder, consisting of potassium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal; which became the first "modern" high-energy composition of black powder. The Chinese were also involved in pyrotechnics, developing rockets by 10th century and using fireworks in 1200 AD. Chinese firecrackers became a popular item in the United States when trade begun in the 1800's, and still remain popular in the United States today, accounting for well over half of the annual sales of fireworks in this country. In the 1780's Berthelot discovered that...
Survey of the Sciences
Unit 4: The Science of Fireworks
What is a firework? An explosive or combustible used for display. In the 19th century the introduction of new ingredients such as magnesium and aluminum greatly heightened the brilliance of such displays. There are two main classes of fireworks, force-and-spark and flame. In force and spark compositions, potassium nitrate, sulfur, and finely ground charcoal are used, with additional ingredients that produce various types of sparks. In flame compositions, such as the stars that shoot out of rockets, potassium nitrate, salts of antimony, and sulfur maybe be used. For colored fire, potassium chlorate or potassium perchlorate is combined with a metal salt that determines the color.
Inside each firework are small packets filled with chemicals, mainly metal salts and metal oxides, which react to produce an array of colors. When heated, the atoms of each element in the mix absorb energy causing its electrons to rearrange from their lowest energy state to a higher excited state. As the electrons plummet back down to their lower energy state the excess energy gets emitted as light.
Each element releases a different amount of energy and this energy is what determines the color or wavelength of the light that is emitted. For instance, when sodium nitrate is heated, electrons in the sodium atoms absorb the energy and get excited. When...
January 10, 2012
Dr. January Riddle
Fireworks are used for special events in the whole world, a lot of people have unlimited access to buy fireworks. When special events are coming up people get excited to watch fireworks exploding in the sky. Some people do not realize fireworks are dangerous in many ways. Something good I can tell about fireworks is, when I was a child I used to play with fireworks, and it was funny to watch them explode. This Christmas my brother and cousin were playing with fireworks but they had an accident with only one firework, my brother lit a firework, then my brother and cousin ran away from there but the firework flew against my cousin burned at his ear, then the same firework burned my brother in his arm.
The first reason fireworks should be banned is that fireworks cause accidents to some people, and in some cases people die to play with them. People between 6 and 19 years old have more than 50% of provability of hurt themselves playing with fireworks. Fireworks are made with different kinds of ingredients but the most dangerous is the gunpowder because it is form part of the base of the fireworks and it is very explosive. When...
...important for them recently. I can't agree with them. This essay will show why the Spring Festival is so important. First, it let us feel the family love. Second, it let us remember our country's traditional culture.
One important reason is that we can feel our family love. What this means you can feel the love through doing things with your family and talking with them. First, a family always do many things together. We are all getting very busy and have many works to do, so we can't spend much time with our family. In Spring Festival, we can make and have the Eve's dinner together. After the dinner, we would set the beautiful fireworks in the square. We also could take a trip in the Spring festival. Doing many things with family is very happy, funny and you can feel very warm. Second, you can feel love from staying and talking with your family. We are getting older and older and have experienced many things. It is difficult to find someone you can tell him everything. In your family, you can be very relaxed to share many things with them. Like some thing you saw, your feeling or your secrets. There is no social pressure when you are staying with your family. Thus, Spring Festival helps us feel our family love.
...ï»¿The Chinese Fireworks Industry
Liuyang, a city in Hunan Province in China, is known as âthe home of firecrackers and fireworksâ. The fireworks making in Liuyang has a long history and tradition in China, and enjoys a high reputation in the domestic market. It was also the top fireworks exporter in the world, covering 60% of the global production. However, the fireworks market in China faced an intensified competition and several legal restrictions. Jerry Yu, who was running a small family-owned chain of gift stores in New York, was asked to invest in a fireworks factory. He has management experience and global insight with an MBA, but he is challenged to decide whether it is worthwhile to invest in it considering the threats it is facing and the weaknesses of the industry. As far as I am concerned, although the downward trend of fireworks consumption (see Exhibit 1) made the whole firework industry seem like a sunset industry, there are still some opportunities for investing this industry and make profit out of it.
In the domestic market, local governments have different regulations regarding fireworks consumption. By 1998, one-third of the cities in China had completely banned the use of firecrackers and fireworks. Another one-third only allowed fireworks in designated places....
...ï»¿The Chinese Fireworks Industry
While the Liuyang fireworks industry dominated the worldwide industry, Jerry had to decide whether he should invest in the industry. If he did invest, what was the best way to capitalize on the potential that remained unexploited in this industry? He wondered whether he could apply the industry analysis framework he had studied in his MBA program.
Total revenue increased in China from 2007 to 2009 by 36%
Total revenue in Liuyang increased by almost 68% from 750k to 1,26 MM
Low cost of entry as traditional fireworks industry in China are antiquated and old fashioned
High concentration of family run businesses with local population as workers
Below is an estimation of SWOT analysis on Mr. Yu
2. Chinese Background
3. Business experience in USA
1. No experience in Firework Industry or in the manufacturing sector
2. Distance factor â Mr. Yu is based in USA
1. United States is the number 1 importer of Chinese Fireworks
2. High demand for Chinese Fireworks
3. Scope for improvement and exploration in new technology
1. Age old industry with many competitors
2. Chinese regulations are completely different than American regulations
3. Business with family
Below is an estimation of SWOT analysis on the Fireworks Industry
1. Labor Cost
3. Cost of material
4. Brand perception...
...The Liuyang Fireworks Factory as an Investment
Jerry Yu is an American born Chinese man with an MBA who runs a small family chain of businesses in New York. He is faced with a decision to invest in the Chinese fireworks industry. Jerry must assess the attractiveness of the fireworks industry along with the risks involved. Throughout this paper we will analyze the pros and cons of entering the market of Chinese fireworks.
In our opinion, Jerry Yu should not invest in the Liuyang fireworks factory. While there are many factors that could give Jerry the opportunity to be successful, the low profit margin and the high instability of the market outweigh the chances of success. The regulations throughout the fireworks industry varies from market to market. For example, Chinaâs domestic market has deregulated since 2005, while the American market remains regulated. The high competition paired with the low selling prices due to undercutting has caused the profit margin to decrease, especially for new entries. The reason for this is that the established fireworks companies have long term contracts with suppliers, causing Jerry to sell his fireworks at a lower price. Established companies also cause a problem because of their relationships with the raw material suppliers. Due to their longstanding relationships, these companies have a right to supplies before the new...