Fire Safety

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FIRE SAFETY ENGINEERING IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

Author’s Name.

Date.

Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of

Department of

University of

ABSTRACT
This dissertation is concerned with how the safety of high- rise buildings in the event of fire can be improved, especially with regards to engineering. Its major focus is to examine recent fires that have occurred in high-rise buildings. It will then conduct a critical analysis of what could have caused the fires, and how these flaws in engineering can be corrected. The introduction will focus on current fire safety engineering standards, and where the flaws lie. It will also articulate the importance of fire safety engineering and how this ties in with safety to the general public. This paper will seek to identify the gaps that exist in this field and how they can be filled. My methodology will be both quantitative and qualitative. The former will include phenomenological, biographical and case study methods; while the latter will be primarily ex-post facto research.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank everyone who so generously contributed to my dissertation beginning from the research, to formatting and analysis, the compilation from its inception to its conclusion. First, I would like to extend my gratitude to my supervisor () for his unflagging and unfailing support during my studies. He listened patiently to me, and was there to advice me consistently on ways and means of achieving my objective. He has always been available to brainstorm, to edit my research and to give me encouragement in working through the problems. This assistance has been of great value to me, and I hold him in deep gratitude for his help.

Secondly, I acknowledge the help given to me by various companies and individuals that helped me avail to me quite a lot of the information used in this dissertation. Specifically I would like to mention the fire safety-engineering experts who took time to illuminate various fire safety issues. This research would have been impossible without you all.

Lastly, I cannot forget the people who have unfailingly supported me throughout my life, and without whom, I would not be here; my family. This dissertation is dedicated to you. Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..6 Chapter 2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………..12 Chapter 3 Investigation into Two Cases of Tunnel Fires……………………………………………………………………………………32

Case 1: The 1987 Kings Cross Fire Incident………………………………………32 Case 2: The 2005 London Underground Bombings…………………………………39

Chapter 4 Movement of People and the Toxicity Effect in the Emergency………42
Chapter 5 Some Improvements to Design and Construction of Tunnel Stations………………………………………..……………………………………….57 Chapter 6 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations and Future Research…………………………………………………………………75

Chapter 7 References……………………………………………………………….80
LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES
FIGURES
Figure 1: Suppression System without Water Mist……………………………………20 Figure 2: Suppression System with Water Mist………………………………………21

Figure 3: Severe Concrete Spalling After Being Exposed to Fire in a Tunnel……….24 Figure 4: A comparison between the ASET &RSET escape time lines………………42 Figure 5: The Gases Produced From Various Material Types………………………..47 Figure 6: Comparison of the Relationship Between Time to...
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