Fire Management

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OPERATIONAL POLICY AND CONCERN:
MANILA FIRE DISTRICT

I. INTRODUCTION:

In the early decades of the 20th century, The Philippine government adopted a policy of aggressive fire suppression. Professional firefighters were trained to detect and fight fires, and fire stations were built in strategic areas throughout our country. The aim of fire suppression is, first, to stop or slow down the rate of a fire's spread, and secondly, to put it out. There are three components to any fire — fuel, temperature, and oxygen — which have become known as the fire triangle. To suppress a fire, firefighters must break this triangle, by removing the combustible materials, by reducing its temperature, or by smothering it so that it has no oxygen. Suppressing fires became considerably more effective after World War II and when new fire trucks, helicopters, smokejumpers, fire retardant clothes and new fire fighting strategies were introduced into the fight against fires. It seemed as if the raging infernos that had destroyed property and terrorized people would become the gigantic disasters of the past, limited to small outbreaks that could be quickly brought under control. It has been observed that when people hear fire or smoke alarms, their first response is typically to try to find the reason for the alarm rather than immediately escaping or reporting a fire. In some situations, no one is present to hear an alarm or if they do hear it, they may choose to ignore it entirely. If they realize it is a fire, they may try to fight it themselves, warn or assist others, or collect belongings The type of building in which a fire alarm activates is a key factor in the way people respond. Typically, an alarm in a home leads to a very fast response by occupants while response to an alarm in public assembly occupancy could be expected to be slow. This suggests that source of call measures stratified by occupancy type would be informative in examining total response time measures.

Fire spread may also be affected by fire notification and dispatch. The more time it takes to notify the fire department, the more time fire has to spread. However, monitoring services may be more likely than individuals to report confined fires, since individuals are likely to put these minor fires out themselves. To identify this, the source of the call would have to be examined along with fire spread. Compared to all buildings, a building with an alarm monitoring system may be more likely to be equipped with an automatic fire detection and/or suppression system, which would increase the likelihood that a fire would be detected early or contained to the room of origin. The measure might be further strengthened by examining the percentage of calls made by either individuals or alarm monitoring services by presence or absence of automatic suppression systems. In the National Capital Region with a population of 11.86 Million, it is where most of the biggest and disastrous fire transpired thus, effective and efficient firefighting is very essential. Unfortunately, the BFP firefighters were lack in proper personal protective equipments and modern firefighting equipments which is very significant in carrying out their mandated tasks. II. RELATED ISSUES AND CONCERNS:

There are several studies, some of which date back to the 1970’s, that highlight important performance measures for fire departments to consider when evaluating workload, performance, efficiency, and effectiveness. There have been some key changes in fire codes since the 1970’s. This can have an impact on measures of fire department performance. Fire detection and suppression equipment is now required in most new construction. For the fire service, the desired fire protection outcomes - which are not easily measured - include fires prevented or suppressed, and ultimately the human life and property preserved. You cannot measure a program without first clearly identifying the goals and...
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