A.In finance, the financial system is the system that allows the transfer of money between savers (and investors) and borrowers. A financial system can operate on a global, regional or firm specific level. Gurusamy, writing in Financial Services and Systems has described it as comprising "a set of complex and closely interconnected financial institutions, markets, instruments, services, practices, and transactions. Functions performed by a financial system are :
Saving function: Public saving find their way into the hands of those in production through the financial system. Financial claims are issued in the money and capital markets which promise future income flows. The funds with the producers result in production of goods and services thereby increasing society living standards. Liquidity function: The financial markets provide the investor with the opportunity to liquidate investments like stocks bonds debentures whenever they need the fund. Payment function: The financial system offers a very convenient mode for payment of goods and services. Cheque system, credit card system etc are the easiest methods of payments. The cost and time of transactions are drastically reduced. Risk function: The financial markets provide protection against life, health and income risks. These are accomplished through the sale of life and health insurance and property insurance policies. The financial markets provide immense opportunities for the investor to hedge himself against or reduce the possible risks involved in various investments. Policy function: The government intervenes in the financial system to influence macroeconomic variables like interest rates or inflation so if country needs more money government would cut rate of interest through various financial instruments and if inflation is high and too much money is there in the system then government would increase rate of interest.
B.The primary market is that part of the capital markets that deals with the...
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