Financial accountancy (or financial accounting) is the field of accountancy concerned with the preparation of financial statements for decision makers, such as stockholders, suppliers, banks, employees, government agencies, owners, and other stakeholders. The fundamental need for financial accounting is to reduce principal-agent problem by measuring and monitoring agents' performance and reporting the results to interested users.
Financial accountancy is used to prepare accounting information for people outside the organization or not involved in the day to day running of the company. Managerial accounting provides accounting information to help managers make decisions to manage the business.
Objective of Financial Accounting (FA):
The objective of financial accounting is to collect accurate, systematic, and timely financial data and other financial information, and to compile and consolidate it in an organized and systematic way, according to the principles and rules of accounting, for reporting purpose.
The financial managers use these reports to assess the financial position of the company through various financial management tools and then the financial position can be compared to, or benchmarked against, the industry norms. The four different financial statements used for the purpose of reporting and analysis are
1. Balance Sheet
2. P/L or Income Statement
3. Cash Flow Statement
4. Statement of Retained Earnings (or Shareholders’ Equity Statement)
In financial accounting, assets are recorded on the basis of historical costs in the balance sheet, i.e., the assets are recorded at their original purchase price. Of course, the depreciation on the asset is duly subtracted from its original value as the asset remains in use of the business.
However, in financial management, book value is seldom used and financial managers consider the market value and the intrinsic value of assets.
Market value may be defined as the value currently... [continues]
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