Final Notes

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Anthropology
Science of human cultural and biological variation and evolution Study of human biological and cultural difference across space and time
Anthropos: man (Greek)
Logos: word (Greek)
Naming: building a knowledge off
“Study of Man”
Human Diversity/Differences
Rigorous explanation of being human appreciation of many things
Overlap with other fields
Economics: accumulate wealth v. giving away wealth
Different perspectives
Biological and Cultural Differences
Important factor: wired naturally to perceive/interact with world
Not just about biology mediated by complex culture (shared meanings: signs, symbols, knowledge, LANGUAGE)
Communication: body language clothes, hair etc.
Assumptions about the world without realizing

Culture
Shared, learned behavior (social/economic systems; marriage custons; religion; philosophy; etc.) product of human history; created through interpersonal interactions through time
Male v. Female: stereotypes
Natural v. Cultural: how raised v. how wired

Subfields of Anthropology
Sociocultural Anthropology: interested in socialcultural differences Linguistic Anthropology: diversity of language
Study of language uniquely human characteristics
Analysis of language (not literature) and evolution of language Archeology: history over time
Study of cultural behaviors in the historic and prehistoric past Reconstruct past with artifacts
Biological Anthropology: diversity over time and biology
Biological evolution and variation of the human species, past and present Evolutionary science focused on human biological origins, evolution and variation
Paleoanthropolgy
Study of primate and human evolution in the broadest possible sense
Uses different contributions from other disciplines
Primatology
Scientific study of primates
Human Biology
Variation in biology

Epistemology
Way of knowing (knowledge of world around us)
Objective v. subjective
Examples: religion, philosophy, metaphysical, aesthetic (art)
What are the relevant questions to ask and how to ask

Science
Form of epistemology
Search for “objective truths” producing facts
Wants to know “how”
Goal is to disprove (“falsify”) constantly evolving
Built on assumptions; taken on faith

Scientific Paradigms
Theory has large framework with smaller theories within

Theories
Set of hypothesis that have been tested repeatedly and that have not been rejected Oxymoron of Creation Science
Form of epistemology
Taking the biblical creation of the world too literally
Not true science
Want to find fault with evolution through sciences no scientific proof Religion v. science battle--
“Grab bag of ideas spruced up with scientific jargon”

Hypotheses
Explanation of observed facts
Must be testable

Plato & the Eidos
Stressed over the truth (live in a world of chaos)
Real world as an imperfect representation of an ideal world
Variation as a nuisance philosophers overcome with thinking
Eidos: ideal type (true thing) cosmological heaven

Aristotle & Great Chain of Being
Disagreed with Plato
Truth can be found in the world investigate nature
Humans were naturally on top
Created “Great Chain of Being”
Ladder of perfection/better to worst

Fixity of Species
Immutability of species
Nothing has changed in form (no evolution)

Archbishop James Ussher
“Figured” out when the world was created through looking at the bible and coding the genealogies (1600-1800’s: era of renewed scholarly activity
4004 BC
Creation of the world

Descartes
Renaissance man
“I think, therefore I am”
God gave us a mind to investigate nature give glory to God

Linneaus
1707-1778
Systematic investigation to classify living things
Taxonomy of plants and animals
Came up with Binomial Nomenclature

Binomial Nomenclature
Way of classification
Genus (group of similar species with particular forms of adapting), species (populations whose...
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