Final Assessment

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PPT #1
George Orwell and Opposition to Totalitarianism

George Orwell is an English novelist and journalist. Considered perhaps the 20th century's best chronicler of English culture, Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction and polemical journalism.

He is best known for Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). The former is often thought to reflect degeneration in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalinism; the latter, life under totalitarian rule.

Today, I’m not going to introduce the two books I mentioned above or the writer himself. Instead, I’m going to talk about his opposition to totalitarianism. I’ll just use the two books to analyse it.

PPT #2

Animal Farm is George Orwell's political satire on totalitarianism. Old Major, an old pig, gathers the animals of Mr. Jones' Manor Farm for a meeting. He advocates all the animals to rebel and embrace Animalism and stage a revolution to achieve an idealistic state of justice and progress. A power-hungry pig, Napoleon, becomes a totalitarian dictator who leads the Animal Farm into oppression.

Different from Animal Farm, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a prediction of the future. In George Orwell's 1984, Winston Smith fights with oppression in Oceania, a place where the Party scrutinizes human actions with ever-watchful Big Brother. Refusing to obey a ban on individuality, Winston dares to express his thoughts in a diary and pursues a relationship with Julia. These criminal deeds bring Winston into the eye of the opposition, who then must reform the people who do not follow the beliefs of the country.

Even if the two books describe two different world, animal world and human world, the ways of governing are astonishingly similar. To sum up, the similar ways of governing are mainly in the following aspects.

PPT #3

* Putting Forward Slogans
* Marking Someone as the Public Enemy
* Enforcing Strict Surveillance
* Manipulating Languages

Putting Forward Slogans

Governors tend to put forward slogans after setting up regime and force the people to keep them firmly in mind. The slogans, to some extent, function as the leading ideology of the country. Animal Farm

First Version
Four legs good, two legs bad.
Four legs good, two legs bad.
THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal.

Second Version
THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
Four legs good, two legs better.
Four legs good, two legs better.
1.
2.
3.No animal shall wear clothes.
4.No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets.
5.No animal shall drink alcohol to excess.
6.No animal shall kill any other animal without cause.
7.All animals are equal.

Third Version
All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others

The Seven Commandments of Animalism, known as the constitution on the farm, are written on the wall. The most important one is the seventh, "All animals are equal." However, Napoleon abuses his power and appears to be adopting the lifestyle of a man. He walks on his hind legs, wears Mr. Jones’s clothes, sleeps on Mr. Jones’s bed, drinks alcohol and even forces "confessions" from innocent animals and having the dogs kill them in front of the entire farm. At last, the faces of the pigs look like those of humans and no one can tell the differences between the pigs and humans. Finally, the Seven Commandments are reduced to a single phrase: "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others."

While, in Nineteen Eighty-Four, the slogans seem to be even more horrible.

WAR IS PEACE
FREEDOM IS SLAVERY
IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH

These words are the official slogans of the Party. By weakening the independence and strength...
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