Italian Renaissance Artist:
Filippo Brunelleschi, an Italian Renaissance artist, architect and inventor, who lived during 1377 to 1446. He is the designer and the creator of the Dome of Florence, and discoverer of one point perspective, which in turn, will revolutionize engineering and human ethnics. Brunelleschi is an interesting person because he grew up with high ambition, and his success is closely related to the Areas of Knowledge, and his Ways of Knowing.
Why focus on an Italian renaissance architect such as Filippo Brunelleschi, who died almost six centuries ago? Filippo Brunelleschi was a genius, mathematician, engineer, goldsmith and an inventor. His works revolutionized the modern way of art and design. Filippo Brunelleschi lived during the middle ages, right after the black plague struck Europe. The renaissance began during the 14th century and marked the rebirth of Europe. Europeans changed their ways or knowing, perceived religion differently and started practicing humanism. Italy’s geographic placement in the Mediterranean made it a focal point of trade between the West and the East. Excessive amounts of money were being circulated around Rome at this time, and a lot of money was being spent on artists, such as Filippo Brunelleschi. It is important to discuss Brunelleschi’s successful life as his early and later works will have completely set new standards to architectural design for the time. He has gone beyond the limits of many intelligent engineers and is still considered one of the most magnificent artists for his time. Filippo Brunelleschi’s innovative ideas came from studying historical success, and failure. He used science and mathematics to complete his works. He learned from arts, reason and sense perspective, which contributed to his inventive ideas. Human sciences and ethnics were important as well and were probably the main reason why he could accomplish so much. Filippo Brunelleschi’s early life started when he was born in 1377, in Italy. In his early years, His father recognized his talents and enrolled him to a goldsmith & sculptor school, The Arte Della Seta, the silk merchant’s guild. Here he was trained and work with goldsmiths, metalworkers and bronze workers. Not long after, he was designated a master goldsmith and continued his work sculpting. Brunelleschi competed against Lorenzo Ghiberti, a young sculptor, to get commissioned for making a bronze relief for the door of the Florence Baptistery. Brunelleschi failure to succeed the competition, contributed to the transition of architecture instead. This transition may have come from a mixture of emotion, reason and ethnics. He knew that it would be very difficult to get back up in the league once he lost against another sculptor. It was not too long after when Brunelleschi and his good friend and sculptor, Donatello, visited Rome to study the ancient ruins from 1402-1404. This may have been one of the big reasons why he would shift from one profession to the other. He felt interested and inspired by the classical and ancient roman style of building. Brunelleschi’s new dominant thread was now for architecture, and it evolved from Gothic or medieval manner, to the new architectural classicism.
Figure 1 Claude LedouxFigure 2 Laon Cathedral in Notre Dame Paris (Classical Style Architecture) (Gothic Style Architecture)
One of Brunelleschi’s most interesting works is the Dome for the Cathedral of Florence. The dome will be one of his hardest works to accomplish and will also take up most of his career. The dome itself is almost too large to even be built, and most architects at the time, feared that the dome would collapse under the weight and pressure of the heavy bricks and stones. He would only accomplish this dome with the help of his innovative mechanisms he designed and built, to keep the dome from falling apart. Brunelleschi was a smart...