Zeus Salazar (1985), a historian, identified four traditions upon which Philippine psychology is rooted:
Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is essentially the American-oriented Western psychology being studied in the Philippines. Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This was started by priest-professors at the University of Santo Tomas. This tradition is mainly focused on what is called 'Rational psychology'. Ethnic Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya: This is the tradition on which Philippine psychology is primarily based. This refers to the indigenous concepts that are studied using indigenous psychological orientation and methodologies. Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The tradition that fuses native healing techniques and explains it in an indigenous religious context.By Noeco C. Marquiño,BS. Psychology UNO-R.
Core value or Kapwa
Kapwa, meaning 'togetherness', is the core construct of Filipino Psychology. Kapwa refers to community; not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people).
Ibang Tao ("outsider") There are five domains in this construct: Pakikitungo: civility
Pakikisalamuha: act of mixing
Pakikilahok: act of joining
Pakikisama: being united with the group.
Hindi Ibang Tao ("one-of-us") There are three domains in this construct: Pakikipagpalagayang-loob: act of mutual trust
Pakikisangkot: act of joining others
Pakikipagkaisa: being one with others
Pivotal interpersonal value
Pakiramdam: Shared inner perceptions. Filipinos use damdam, or the inner perception of others' emotions, as a basic tool to guide his dealings with other people.
Linking socio-personal value
Kagandahang-Loob: Shared humanity. This refers to being able to help other people in dire need due to a perception of being together as a part of one Filipino humanity.
Accommodative surface values
Hiya: Loosely translated as 'shame' by most Western psychologists, Hiya is actually 'sense of propriety'. Utang na Loob: Norm of reciprocity. Filipinos are expected by their neighbors to return favors-—whether these were asked for or not—-when it is needed or wanted. Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa: Smooth Interpersonal Relationship, or SIR, as coined by Lynch (1961 and 1973). This attitude is primarily guided by conformity with the majority.
Confrontative surface values
Bahala Na: This attitude, loosely translated into English as 'fatalistic passiveness', actually describes the Filipino way of life, in which, he is determined to do his best, hence the term bahala na, which actually came from the phrase bathalan na, meaning 'I will do all my best, let God take care of the rest'. Lakas ng Loob: This attitude is characterized by being courageous in the midst of problems and uncertainties. Pakikibaka: Literally in English, it means concurrent clashes. It refers to the ability of the Filipino to undertake revolutions and uprisings against a common enemy.
Karangalan: Loosely translated to dignity, this actually refers to what other people see in a person and how they use that information to make a stand or judge about his/her worth. Puri: the external aspect of dignity. May refer to...