Filipino

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As mandated in the 1935 Philippine Constitution, a national language was to be adopted and developed based on one of the existing native languages.  In 1937, the Institute of National Language (INL) which was created to direct the selection, propagation and development of the national language, recommended that Tagalog be the basis for the adoption of the national language of the country.  In the same year, then President Manuel Quezon signed Executive Order No. 134 declaring Tagalog as basis of the national language.        On April 12, 1940, Executive Order No. 263 was issued ordering among others, the teaching of the national language in all public and private schools in the country.        A Department Order was subsequently issued by the Secretary of Public Instruction on April 8, 1940 to implement the aforementioned Executive Order.  Bureau Education Circular No. 26, s. 1940 provides that "... effective June 19, 1940, the national language shall be taught forty minutes a day as a regular, required two-semester subject "... The national language shall replace an elective in each semester of the second year in normal schools and shall be an additional subject of all secondary schools ..."        The national language, more popularly known as Tagalog, was therefore, first introduced in the fourth year of all public and private high schools and in the second year of all public and private teacher-training institutions.        The inclusion of Tagalog in the curriculum was viewed as a positive direction towards more effective teaching and learning since, compared with English, Tagalog would be an easier language to use as tool of learning.   This significant move also marked the beginning of the critical process of developing the national language and disseminating it nationwide mainly through the schools.        Meanwhile, Tagalog was popularized more widely when the Japanese forces invaded the country in 1942.  The Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Imperial Forces ordered the prohibition of the use of English and the Filipino people's reliance upon Western nations particularly the United States and Great Britain.        Besides being declared as the official language, Tagalog was to become the medium of instruction in schools during the Japanese regime.  (Teachers who were used to using English, however, were reportedly teaching secretly in English and not in Tagalog.)        In 1943, President Laurel issued Executive Order No. 10 mandating educational reforms which included, among other things, the teaching of the national language in all elementary schools, public and private, and the training of national language teachers on a massive scale effective at the beginning of the school year 1944-1945.  Major emphasis was given to the development of the national language.  It was during the Japanese regime, then that the teaching of the national language became part of the curriculum at all levels.  It was introduced as a subject in all grades at the elementary and high school levels.  In 1944, non-Tagalog teachers started learning the language through the opening of a Tagalog Institute to enable them to teach and use the language.        Executive Order No. 44 was issued by President Laurel to lay down educational policies which included the restoration of the University of the Philippines, which was tasked with the promotion of Philippine nationalism, and the development of the national language, among others.  In line with this provision, the curricula of higher education institutions had the national language as one of its compulsory subjects.        The school system was reorganized when the Americans came to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese invasion.  English, again, became the principal medium of instruction with Tagalog taught as a required subject in the elementary and secondary levels.        In 1957, a new language policy was adopted in Philippine schools, following a period of intensive research and...
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