INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
❑ Comes from two Greek words:
◦ Psyche = soul
◦ Logos = study
◦ Psychology = study of the soul (later of the mind
❑ Psychology = scientific study of behavior and mental processes
❑ Scientific = observation, description and experimental investigation to gather information.
❑ Child of two parents
◦ Philosophy – pursuit of wisdom through logical reasoning
◦ Physiology – study of vital life processes of an organism, such as respiration, digestion and reproduction.
❑ HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
❑ Psychology reaches back to ancient times which philosophers and religious leaders were asking questions about human nature and trying to explain human behavior.
◦ Stanley Hall l awarded first Ph.D. in psychology.
← first president of American psychological association.
◦ William James offered first course in experimental psychology at Harvard university
← Founder of functionalism
← The first great American psychologist
← Wilhelm Wundt founded first laboratory for psychological research at Leipzig, Germany.
◦ Founder of structuralism
◦ Father of experimental psychology.
◦ Beverly Inez Prosser first black woman to earn Ph.D. in psychology
◦ Francis Sumner – first American (black) to earn Ph.D. in psychology
◦ Aristotle – one of the earliest writers to devote attention to psychology.
← father of psychology
← Hippocrates – the father of medicine
← – argues for four temperaments of personality.
◦ Rene Descartes – father of reflex action
◦ Describes animal spirits
◦ St. Augustine – father of introspection
← John Locke – knowledge comes through experiences and interactions with the world.
← Mind is a blank slate, or a tabula rasa
← B. F. Skinner – publishes Science and Human Behavior, advocating the behavioral perspective.
← Founder of operant conditioning
← Herman Von Helmholtz– grandfather of experimental psychology, who experimented on physiological phenomena.
← Gustav Theodore Fechner – research on psychophysical studies that determined the body and mind relationship as applied to human faculties.
← Ernst Gustav Weber – postulated the Weber’s law, which states that, a difference that is just perceptible bears a constant ratio to the size of the standard stimulus.
← Francis Galton Pioneered in experimental psychology in Great Britain, with his theory on individual differences through his statistical technique known as coefficient correlation.
← James Mckeen Cattell– formulated the Sixteen Personality Factor.
← Karl Pearson – improve the coefficient correlation statistical technique.
← Charles Darwin – theory of evolution which plays a major role in comparative psychology.
← Franz Anton Mesmer – used hypnotism as a means of treating mental illness.
← Carl Rogers – publishes Client-Centered theory.
← Mary Calkins – works on memory.
← Became the first female president of the
American Psychological Association
← Jean Piaget – an influential developmental psychologist.
◦ Introduced the cognitive stages of development
← Ivan Petrovich Pavlov wins Nobel prize for work on digestion that led to fundamental principles of learning.
← Author of Classical conditioning
← David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel– win Nobel Prize for work on vision cells in the brain.
← Elizabeth Loftus – does pioneering work on false memory and eyewitness testimony.
← Leta Stetter Hollingworth– publishes work on adolescence
← One of the first psychologists to focus on...