Files

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s): 94
  • Published: February 10, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

❑ ORIGIN

❑ Comes from two Greek words:

◦ Psyche = soul

◦ Logos = study

◦ Psychology = study of the soul (later of the mind

❑ Psychology = scientific study of behavior and mental processes

❑ Scientific = observation, description and experimental investigation to gather information.

❑ Child of two parents

◦ Philosophy – pursuit of wisdom through logical reasoning

◦ Physiology – study of vital life processes of an organism, such as respiration, digestion and reproduction.

❑ HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

❑ Psychology reaches back to ancient times which philosophers and religious leaders were asking questions about human nature and trying to explain human behavior.

◦ Stanley Hall l awarded first Ph.D. in psychology.

← first president of American psychological association.

◦ William James offered first course in experimental psychology at Harvard university

← Founder of functionalism

← The first great American psychologist

← Wilhelm Wundt founded first laboratory for psychological research at Leipzig, Germany.

◦ Founder of structuralism

◦ Father of experimental psychology.

◦ Beverly Inez Prosser first black woman to earn Ph.D. in psychology

◦ Francis Sumner – first American (black) to earn Ph.D. in psychology

◦ Aristotle – one of the earliest writers to devote attention to psychology.

← father of psychology

← Hippocrates – the father of medicine

← – argues for four temperaments of personality.

◦ Rene Descartes – father of reflex action

◦ Describes animal spirits

◦ St. Augustine – father of introspection

← John Locke – knowledge comes through experiences and interactions with the world.

← Mind is a blank slate, or a tabula rasa

← B. F. Skinner – publishes Science and Human Behavior, advocating the behavioral perspective.

← Founder of operant conditioning

← Herman Von Helmholtz– grandfather of experimental psychology, who experimented on physiological phenomena.

← Gustav Theodore Fechner – research on psychophysical studies that determined the body and mind relationship as applied to human faculties.

← Ernst Gustav Weber – postulated the Weber’s law, which states that, a difference that is just perceptible bears a constant ratio to the size of the standard stimulus.

← Francis Galton Pioneered in experimental psychology in Great Britain, with his theory on individual differences through his statistical technique known as coefficient correlation.

← James Mckeen Cattell– formulated the Sixteen Personality Factor.

← Karl Pearson – improve the coefficient correlation statistical technique.

← Charles Darwin – theory of evolution which plays a major role in comparative psychology.

← Franz Anton Mesmer – used hypnotism as a means of treating mental illness.

← Carl Rogers – publishes Client-Centered theory.

← Mary Calkins – works on memory.

← Became the first female president of the
American Psychological Association

← Jean Piaget – an influential developmental psychologist.

◦ Introduced the cognitive stages of development

← Ivan Petrovich Pavlov wins Nobel prize for work on digestion that led to fundamental principles of learning.

← Author of Classical conditioning

← David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel– win Nobel Prize for work on vision cells in the brain.

←   Elizabeth Loftus – does pioneering work on false memory and eyewitness testimony.

← Leta Stetter Hollingworth– publishes work on adolescence

← One of the first psychologists to focus on...
tracking img