A figure of speech is a use of a word that diverges from its normal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it such as a metaphor, simile, or personification. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation. A figure of speech is sometimes called a rhetoric or a locution. Not all theories of meaning have a concept of "literal language" (see literal and figurative language). Under theories that do not, figure of speech is not an entirely coherent concept. Rhetoric originated as the study of the ways in which a source text can be transformed to suit the goals of the person reusing the material. For this goal, classical rhetoric detected four fundamental operations that can be used to transform a sentence or a larger portion of a text. They are: expansion, abridgement, switching, transferring. Alliteration
Repetition of an initial consonant sound.
Repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.
Breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing, some abstract quality, an inanimate object, or a nonexistent character.
Identity or similarity in sound between internal vowels in neighboring words.
A verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed.
The substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.
An extravagant statement; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. A statement or situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the idea.
A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated; also, the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it.
The formation or use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
A figure of speech in which incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side.
A statement that appears to contradict itself.
A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is endowed with human qualities or abilities.
A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words.
A stated comparison (usually formed with "like" or "as") between two fundamentally dissimilar things that have certain qualities in common.
A figure of speech is which a part is used to represent the whole, the whole for a part, the specific for the general, the general for the specific, or the material for the thing made from it.
A figure of speech in which a writer or a speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is. Figures by Type with Link
| figures which change the typical meaning of a word or words
| Metaplasmic Figures
| figures which move the letters or syllables of a word from their typical places
| Figures of Omission
| figures which omit something--eg. a word, words, phrases, or clauses--from a sentence
| Figures of Repetition (words)
| figures which repeat one or more words
| Figures of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document