Fields of Philosophy Matrix

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FIELD
DEFINITION
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
PRINCIPAL ISSUES

Epistemology
the theory of knowledge, is the branch of philosophy concerned with these questionsa.Schools of thought and historical development 1)Skeptics
a)Ancient
(1)Pyrrho of Elis
(2)Sextus Empiricus
b)Medieval
(1)St. Augustine
2)Rationalists
a)Ancient
(1)Plato
b)Medieval
(1)St. Anselm
(2)St. Augustine
c)Modern
(1)Descartes
(2)Leibniz
(3)Spinoza
3)Empiricists
a)Ancient
(1)Aristotle
b)Medieval
(1)St. Thomas Aquinas
c)Modern
(1)Locke
(2)Berkeley
(3)Hume
4)Kant and post-Kantian thinkers (Modern)
a)Immanuel Kant
b)Hegel
5)Pragmatism (contemporary-20th Century)
a)Pierce
b)James
c)Dewey
Skepticism- method of achieving certainty
Empiricism- that is, there is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses. Rationalism- holds that the intellect contains important truths that were not placed there by sensory experience. “Something never comes from nothing,”

Aristotle (384–322 b.c.e.)

John Locke (1632–1704)

Plato (427-357 BC)

David Hume (1711-1776)

Kant (1724-1804)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Skepticism is a method knowledge
a.Principle issues of epistemology
1)The nature of knowledge
a)Justified belief
b)True belief
2)Sources of knowledge
a)Reason
b)Sense experience
3)The nature of truth
a)Correspondence theories
b)Coherence theories
c)Pragmatic theories
4)Justification of belief
a)Deductive logic
b)Inductive logic
5)Limitations of knowledge
a)Absolutism
b)Skepticism
Falliblism.

Metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that is concerned with these questionsMetaphysical questions do not necessarily correlate with a particular time period. 6)Realism
a)Aristotle
b)Aquinas
c)Locke
d)Kant
7)Idealism
a)Plato
b)Berkeley
8)Materialism
a)Hobbes
9)Dualism
a)Descartes
10)Monism
a)Leibniz
b)Spinoza
11)Determinism
12)Libertarianism
a)Sartre
b)Camus
13)Compatibilism
b.Existence of God: Proof and faith
1)Justified belief: Proofs of God’s existence
a)Ontological argument
b)Cosmological argument
c)Teleological argument
2)Faith in God: The will to believe
Pythagoras (c. 550 BCE)
George Berkeley (1685-1753)
Thales (c. 600 BCE)
Thomas Hobbes (1586-1679)
Plato (427-248 BCE)
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)1)Ontology: The nature of being or existence 2)Cosmology: The study of the nature of reality or essence
3)Causality
4)Free will
5)Mind and matter

Moral Philosophy
(ethics),the philosophical study of moral judgments1)Subjectivism a)Hume
b)Adam Smith
2)Egoism
a)Hobbes
b)Ayn Rand
3)Virtue ethics
a)Plato
b)Aristotle
c)Aquinas
d)MacIntyre
4)Ethical relativism
a)Ruth Benedict
b)Clyde Kluckhohn
5)Utilitarianism
a)Bentham
b)Mill
6)Kantian formalism (Categorical Imperative)
a)Kant
b)Barbara HermannEgoism
Moral Absolutism
Moral relativism
Utilitarianism David Hume (1711-1776)
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
John Stuart Mill(1806-1873)
Jeremy Bentham (1746-1832)1)Relationship of ethics to morals a)Personal codes
b)Organizational codes
c)International codes
2)Justification of moral value judgments
a)Kohlberg’s stages of moral development
b)Role of intentions
c)Moral reasoning process
d)Judging agents versus actions
3)Objectivity and universality of moral standards
a)Role of culture
b)Influence of personal feeling
c)Relevance of circumstances
4)Nature of justice
a)Distributive and retributive
b)Role of welfare

Social
Philosophy
the philosophical study of society and its institutions1)Subjectivism a)Hume
b)Adam Smith
2)Egoism
a)Hobbes
b)Ayn Rand
3)Virtue ethics
a)Plato
b)Aristotle
c)Aquinas
d)MacIntyre
4)Ethical relativism
a)Ruth Benedict
b)Clyde Kluckhohn
5)Utilitarianism
a)Bentham
b)Mill
6)Kantian formalism (Categorical Imperative)...
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