Fibre Optics

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FIBRE OPTICS

INTRODUCTION

-A fiber-optic cable is made up of 100 or more incredibly thin strands of glass or plastic known as optical fibers. Fiber-optic cables carry information between two places using entirely optical (light-based) technology. -Optical fibers carry light signals down them in what are called modes. A mode is simply the path that a light beam follows down the fiber. -The simplest type of optical fiber is called single-mode. It has a very thin core. Cable TV, Internet, and telephone signals are generally carried by single-mode fibers, wrapped together into a huge bundle. Cables like this can send information over 100 km. -Another type of fiber-optic cable is called multi-mode. Each optical fiber in a multi-mode cable is about 10 times bigger than a single-mode cable and can send information only over relatively short distances and are used to link computer networks together. -Even thicker fibers are used in medical tools called endoscopes, which doctors poke down people’s throats for detecting illnesses inside their stomachs. Different sizes of endoscopes can be used to inspect different parts of the body. -There is also an industrial version of the tool, called a fiberscope, which can be used to examine things like inaccessible pieces of machinery in airplane engines.

HISTORY

-1930- German medical student, Heinrich Lamm was the first person to assemble a bundle of optical fibers to carry an image to look into inaccessible parts of the body. - 1954- Dutch scientist Abraham Van Heel and British scientist Harold. H. Hopkins separately wrote papers on imaging bundles. Hopkins reported on imaging bundles of unclad fibers while Van Heel reported on simple bundles of clad fibers. -In 1961- Elias Snitzer of American Optical published a theoretical description of single mode fibers, a fiber with a core so small it could carry light with only one waveguide mode. - In 1964, a critical (and theoretical) specification was identified by Dr....
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