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25 February 2014
Motivation
What is it?
Motivation goal-directed behaviour
Motivation are needs, wants, interests, and desires
Biological:
Hunger, thirst, temperature, sleep
Shared amongst us all
Social:
Social bonds, protect others, independence, have fun and play Differ amongst us all
Evolutionary:
Survival, reproduction, adaption, altruism
Shared amongst us all

Motivation as Drives
Drive – internal tension
Very influential
Ex. Thirst, hunger, sex, temperature, excretory, sleep, arousal, aggression Drive reduction – establish homeostasis
We seek to reduce our internal drives
Ex.
Homeostasis – physiological equilibrium or stability
Drives → Drive Reduction → Re-establish Homeostasis

Incentive Theories
External goals that motivate behaviour:
Environmental factors
Do not necessarily reduce drives
Do not always seek homeostasis
Drives and incentives:
“Push-versus-pull theories”
Expectancy-value model:
Three steps

Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biology of hunger:
Brain regions – hypothalamus
Neuroplasticity is putting the brain back together
Lateral and ventromedial areas regulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus and periventricular nucleus modulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus – sensitive to glucose levels
Contributes to eating
Glucose – a simple sugar that regulates digestion; delivers energy to the body More glucose = feelings of satiation
Less glucose = feelings of hunger
All hormones converge via the hypothalamus
Insulin from the pancreas helps cells extract glucose from the blood, regulating the hunger Ghrelin from the stomach causes contractions, promoting hunger CCK from the small intestine delivers messages of satiety

Environmental factors of hunger:
Incentives → external cues
Availability – the more food, the more we eat
Taste – the better is tastes, the more we eat
Variety – the more options, the more we eat
Others – the more people around, the more we eat
Evolutionary habits of our eating:
When food is...
25 February 2014
Motivation
What is it?
Motivation goal-directed behaviour
Motivation are needs, wants, interests, and desires
Biological:
oHunger, thirst, temperature, sleep
oShared amongst us all
Social:
oSocial bonds, protect others, independence, have fun and play
oDiffer amongst us all
Evolutionary:
oSurvival, reproduction, adaption, altruism
oShared amongst us all
Motivation as Drives
Drive – internal tension
oVery influential
oEx. Thirst, hunger, sex, temperature, excretory, sleep, arousal, aggression
Drive reduction – establish homeostasis
oWe seek to reduce our internal drives
oEx.
Homeostasis – physiological equilibrium or stability
Drives → Drive Reduction → Re-establish Homeostasis
Incentive Theories
External goals that motivate behaviour:
oEnvironmental factors
oDo not necessarily reduce drives
oDo not always seek homeostasis
Drives and incentives:
o“Push-versus-pull theories”
Expectancy-value model:
oThree steps
Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biology of hunger: