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25 February 2014
What is it?
Motivation goal-directed behaviour
Motivation are needs, wants, interests, and desires
Hunger, thirst, temperature, sleep
Shared amongst us all
Social bonds, protect others, independence, have fun and play Differ amongst us all
Survival, reproduction, adaption, altruism
Shared amongst us all

Motivation as Drives
Drive – internal tension
Very influential
Ex. Thirst, hunger, sex, temperature, excretory, sleep, arousal, aggression Drive reduction – establish homeostasis
We seek to reduce our internal drives
Homeostasis – physiological equilibrium or stability
Drives → Drive Reduction → Re-establish Homeostasis

Incentive Theories
External goals that motivate behaviour:
Environmental factors
Do not necessarily reduce drives
Do not always seek homeostasis
Drives and incentives:
“Push-versus-pull theories”
Expectancy-value model:
Three steps

Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biology of hunger:
Brain regions – hypothalamus
Neuroplasticity is putting the brain back together
Lateral and ventromedial areas regulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus and periventricular nucleus modulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus – sensitive to glucose levels
Contributes to eating
Glucose – a simple sugar that regulates digestion; delivers energy to the body More glucose = feelings of satiation
Less glucose = feelings of hunger
All hormones converge via the hypothalamus
Insulin from the pancreas helps cells extract glucose from the blood, regulating the hunger Ghrelin from the stomach causes contractions, promoting hunger CCK from the small intestine delivers messages of satiety

Environmental factors of hunger:
Incentives → external cues
Availability – the more food, the more we eat
Taste – the better is tastes, the more we eat
Variety – the more options, the more we eat
Others – the more people around, the more we eat
Evolutionary habits of our eating:
When food is...
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