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25 February 2014
Motivation
What is it?
Motivation goal-directed behaviour
Motivation are needs, wants, interests, and desires
Biological:
Hunger, thirst, temperature, sleep
Shared amongst us all
Social:
Social bonds, protect others, independence, have fun and play Differ amongst us all
Evolutionary:
Survival, reproduction, adaption, altruism
Shared amongst us all

Motivation as Drives
Drive – internal tension
Very influential
Ex. Thirst, hunger, sex, temperature, excretory, sleep, arousal, aggression Drive reduction – establish homeostasis
We seek to reduce our internal drives
Ex.
Homeostasis – physiological equilibrium or stability
Drives → Drive Reduction → Re-establish Homeostasis

Incentive Theories
External goals that motivate behaviour:
Environmental factors
Do not necessarily reduce drives
Do not always seek homeostasis
Drives and incentives:
“Push-versus-pull theories”
Expectancy-value model:
Three steps

Motivation of Hunger and Eating
Biology of hunger:
Brain regions – hypothalamus
Neuroplasticity is putting the brain back together
Lateral and ventromedial areas regulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus and periventricular nucleus modulate hunger
Arcuate nucleus – sensitive to glucose levels
Contributes to eating
Glucose – a simple sugar that regulates digestion; delivers energy to the body More glucose = feelings of satiation
Less glucose = feelings of hunger
All hormones converge via the hypothalamus
Insulin from the pancreas helps cells extract glucose from the blood, regulating the hunger Ghrelin from the stomach causes contractions, promoting hunger CCK from the small intestine delivers messages of satiety

Environmental factors of hunger:
Incentives → external cues
Availability – the more food, the more we eat
Taste – the better is tastes, the more we eat
Variety – the more options, the more we eat
Others – the more people around, the more we eat
Evolutionary habits of our eating:
When food is scarce, we have to consume more food than necessary; especially when food is available We store excess calories in the body for when we encounter future food shortages Food-replete environments tend to have people over-eat in relation to their physiological needs Obesity:

“BMI over 30”
Has doubled in the last two decades; raising concern for the health and quality of living for Canadians Much evidence points towards a genetic predisposition
Yet, others suggest we create a “toxic environment” for eating Dietary restraints:
Concept of set-point – your body prefers to remain at a stable weight; no matter how much you try to gain or lose Settling-point theory – a series of factors plays into one’s weight; these factors will keep your weight stable as long as they do not change Ex. Walking every day as opposed to extreme exercise a few times a week Eating disorders – anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa appeared in the 1960’s

Sexual Motivation
Human sexual response:
1. Excitement phase – rapid, similar for both sexes
2. Plateau phase – slower, differs for sexes; men are faster than women 3. Orgasm phase – peaks, differs for sexes; women can be multiorgasmic 4. Resolution phase – gradual, for both sexes; men are more unresponsive to further stimulation “If you’re in a relationship with a man, it’s okay if he ‘shoots’ quick” – in your evolution, you’re not meant to be going on forever Gender differences from an evolutionary perspective:

Males – designed to not overlook sexual opportunities; more interested; more initiative; more partners; more sex; age puts no hamper on this pursuit Females – more selective of mates; fewer partners; more emphasis on partner characteristics; more long-term commitments Pornography:

What outcomes does viewing pornography lead to?
Controversy – domestic violence? Sexual abuse? Deviant behaviour? No relation to sexual offenses and porn; inconsistent in the literature What needs to be examined is the altered attitudes towards sexual...
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