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Fire 73:

Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

Fire 73: Fire Prevention Technology

Learning Outcomes
Following instruction the student shall:
Understand fire resistive construction, noncombustible construction, combustible construction, and what constitutes fire-resistance. Identify and describe each of the five construction types and the construction features and fire dangers that are common to each construction type.

Chapter 4:

Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Learning Outcomes
Following instruction the student shall:
Understanding building use, what determines the occupancy classification per the fire code, and the dangers of illegal building use changes.

Section 1:

Construction Types
(Building Classifications, Building Types)

Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Introduction
Most effective way to limit potential fire spread:
Limiting the size of buildings. Regulating the construction materials.

Introduction
For operational purposes this topic instructs us to evaluate the specific building materials and building use in advance of fire combat operations. Is this important?

Largest part of building codes are dedicated to fire protection: Fire safety Emergency egress Structural stability under fire conditions.

Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

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Chapter 4

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Fire 73:

Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

Why Classify Buildings?
As buildings get bigger & higher the potential for catastrophic events increases. Hazardous processes within a building require greater safeguards (FR). Knowing materials in a building helps predict how the building will behave in a fire. CFC defines occupancies & CBC defines bldg types. Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications 7

Building Classification Types
Type I Type II Type III Type IV Type V
Fire-Resistive Noncombustible Ordinary, Masonry, Limited Combustible, Exterior Protected Heavy Timber Wood Frame, Frame, Lightweight

Note: Most types have sub-classifications.

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Type-I Buildings
Educational Facilities Health Care Facilities High Rise Structures Massive Buildings

Type-I, Fire-Resistive Construction

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Type-I
Called ‘Fire-Resistive’ (FR). Noncombustible structural members. Protected steel and reinforced concrete.

Type-I
Fires in fire-resistive construction most often involve the contents, not the building. Structural members (frame) non-combustible:
Reinforced concrete Protected steel

Structural Members Ratings:
Walls, columns and beams are ≥3-hour. Floor construction is ≥2-hour. Roof construction is ≥1-hour. Reference cited: California Building Code
Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications 11

Combustible materials allowed on non-structural:
Wall coverings, roof coverings, finish flooring, wood trim.

FR buildings are least likely to collapse from fire.
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Chapter 4

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Fire 73:

Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

Type-I
Reinforced Concrete:
Can fail if subjected to intense fire for long duration. Can fail if subjected to explosions.

Type-I
Protected Steel:
Structural members covered with insulating material. Protection methods: Metal lathe & plaster Layers of gypsum board Sprayed-on cement-like coating Mineral & fiber boards Encased in concrete. 13

Sprayed on insulating material

Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy Classifications

Chapter 4: Construction Types & Occupancy...
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