Fermentation: Milk and Chemical Reactions

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LAB 1:
Cheesemaking with Enzymes

9E Chihiro Okada

Introduction
1. Enzymes - are biological catalyst.
2. Enzymes - are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions.

Emporase – an enzymes that speeds up the production of cheese.

3. First milk is pasteurized by heating it to 72℃ for 15 seconds to kill any harmful bacteria. Then, the milk is cooled and either a special blend of bacteria or an acidic solution - such as vinegar or lemon juice - is added. The milk is left for one and half hours while the bacteria converts lactose (a substance called "milk sugar") into lactic acid. This causes the milk to sour and the pH to drop to approximately 4.5. A substance called "rennet" is then added to the milk and within a short time, "curds" and "whey" are produced. Rennet is made up of a group of enzymes, such as pepsin and chymosin, that break up proteins. Rennet breaks up a milk protein, called "casein", into "paracasein". Paracasein combines with the calcium found in milk to form "paracaseinate", which separates out. Milk fat and some water combines with paracaseinate to form curds. The remaining liquid is the whey. After curding, the whey is removed and the curds are processed into cheese. 4. Enzyme speed up chemical reaction by proving another pathway along which the reaction can occur this pathway has a lower △G++

5. Vinegar - is an acidic liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient.

6. Null (Ho): Enzymes speeds up chemical reactions.
Alternative (H1): Enzymes don’t speeds up chemical reactions.

7. Null (Ho): Whole milk makes more cheese than 2% milk.
Alternative (H1): Whole milk does not make more cheese than 2% milk.

Methods
(Procedure)
1.Obtain a blue and red cup. Label the blue cup “control treatment” and the red cup “experimental treatment”. 2.Add 100 ml of mild to each cup. Group A will use whole milk and group B will use skin milk 3.Using pH test strip,...
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