Feminism: Contemporary Literary Theory

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A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory
Fifth edition

RAMAN SELDEN PETER WIDDOWSON PETER BROOKER

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A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory

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A Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory
FIFTH EDITION

Raman Selden Peter Widdowson Peter Brooker

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PEARSON EDUCATION LIMITED Edinburgh Gate Harlow CM20 2JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1279 623623 Fax: +44 (0)1279 431059 Website: www.pearsoned.co.uk

Fifth edition published in Great Britain in 2005 © Prentice Hall Europe 1985, 1997 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 The rights of Raman Selden, Peter Widdowson and Peter Brooker to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. ISBN: 978-0-582-89410-5 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP catalogue record for this book can be obtained from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Selden, Raman. A reader’s guide to contemporary literary theory / Raman Selden, Peter Widdowson, Peter Brooker.— 5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-582-89410-7 (pbk.) 1. Criticism—History—20th century. I. Widdowson, Peter. II. Brooker, Peter. III. Title. PN94.S45 2005 801'.95'0904—dc22 2004063377 All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the Publishers. 10 9 8 7 09 08 07 6 5 4

Set in 9/13.5pt Stone Serif by 35 Printed and bound in Malaysia, PJB The Publishers’ policy is to use paper manufactured from sustainable forests.

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In memory of Raman Selden, as always.

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Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition Introduction 1 New Criticism, moral formalism and F. R. Leavis Origins: Eliot, Richards, Empson 15 The American New Critics 18 Moral formalism: F. R. Leavis 23

ix 1 15

2

Russian formalism and the Bakhtin School
Shklovsky, Mukar ovsky, Jakobson 30 ˇ ´ The Bakhtin School 39

29

3

Reader-oriented theories
Phenomenology: Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer 49 Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser 50 Fish, Riffaterre, Bleich 55

45

4

Structuralist theories
The linguistic background 63 Structuralist narratology 67 Metaphor and metonymy 72 Structuralist poetics 75

62

5

Marxist theories
Soviet Socialist Realism 84 Lukács and Brecht 86 The Frankfurt School and After: Adorno and Benjamin 91 ‘Structuralist’ Marxism: Goldmann, Althusser, Macherey 95 ‘New Left’ Marxism: Williams, Eagleton, Jameson 99

82

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viii CONTENTS

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Feminist theories
First-wave feminist criticism: Woolf and de Beauvoir 117 Second-wave feminist criticism 120 Kate Millett: sexual politics 123 Marxist feminism 125 Elaine Showalter: gynocriticism 126 French feminism: Kristeva, Cixous, Irigaray 129

115

7

Poststructuralist theories
Roland Barthes 148 Psychoanalytic theories: 153 Jacques Lacan 156 Julia Kristeva 161 Deleuze and Guattari 162 Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida 164 American deconstruction 171 Michel Foucault 178 New Historicism and Cultural Materialism 180

144

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Postmodernist theories
Jean Baudrillard 200 Jean-François Lyotard 203 Postmodernism and Marxism 206 Postmodern feminisms 209

197

9

Postcolonialist theories
Edward Said 220 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak 223 Homi K. Bhabha 226 Race and ethnicity 229

218

10

Gay, lesbian and queer theories
Gay theory and criticism 244 Lesbian feminist theory and criticism 247 Queer...
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