http://www.slideworld.com/slideshow.aspx/declining-sex-ratio-its-reason-ppt-2766079 http://www.essays24.com/Social-Issues/Infanticide-Females-India/34792.html China Focus - Pending
FEMALE INFANTICIDE WHICH IS RAMPANT IN SOME PARTS OF INDIA AND CHINA RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKET RESEARCH – MMS 1 (2011-12) NAME: SUBHASHISH CHAKRABORTY
ROLL NO: 653
In third world countries such as India infanticide of females is common. There have been laws outlawing both infanticide and determining the sex of babies if it is not medically necessary, however it still continues. The killing of female babies has led to many ethical and social issues. Infanticide has also lead to an imbalance in the ratio of men to woman in India. For every 100 males born there are 105 females born however, most females are killed within 3 days after their birth making the new ratio 93 females for every 100 males.Even though laws and programs have been established to decrease the number of female infanticide it still continues. In India in 1994 determining the sex of foetuses was outlawed if it wasn’t deemed medically necessary. However, ultrasounds are still used to determine the sex of a baby illegally. Couples and doctors alike make excuses and come up with cover stories to justify an ultrasound. Even though ultrasounds are used to save lives of babies in India they are more known to kill babies. At home tests that tell parents the gender of their baby are sold online from a site that is based in the United States. The tests cost $25 and can detect the sex of a fetus as early as five weeks into a pregnancy. If a couple knows the sex of the baby prenatally and are not happy with sex they often resort to abortions or other methods of infanticide. In India abortions are considered a business which is low in risk and high in profit. In India a woman can get an abortion for about 1,500 rupee and even though abortions are illegal doctors still perform them daily. Summary: The phenomenon of female infanticide is as old as many cultures, and has likely accounted for millions of gender-selective deaths throughout history. It remains a critical concern in a number of "Third World" countries today, notably the two most populous countries on earth, China and India. In all cases, specifically female infanticide reflects the low status accorded to women in most parts of the world; it is arguably the most brutal and destructive manifestation of the antifemale bias that pervades "patriarchal" societies. It is closely linked to the phenomena of sex-selective abortion, which targets female fetuses almost exclusively, and neglect of girl children. "Female infanticide is the intentional killing of baby girls due to the preference for male babies and from the low value associated with the birth of females." (Marina Porras, "Female Infanticide and Foeticide".) It should be seen as a subset of the broader phenomenon of infanticide, which has also targeted the physically or mentally handicapped, and infant males (alongside infant females or, occasionally, on a gender-selective basis). Focus (1): India
As John-Thor Dahlburg points out, "in rural India, the centuries-old practice of female infanticide can still be considered a wise course of action." (Dahlburg, "Where killing baby girls 'is no big sin'," The Los Angeles Times [in The Toronto Star, February 28, 1994.]) According to census statistics, "From 972 females for every 1,000 males in 1901 ... the gender imbalance has tilted to 929 females per 1,000 males. ... In the nearly 300 poor hamlets of the Usilampatti area of Tamil Nadu [state], as many as 196 girls died under suspicious circumstances [in 1993]. The bias against females in India is related to the fact that "Sons are called upon to provide the income; they are the ones who do most of the work in the fields. In this way sons are looked to as a type of insurance. With this perspective, it becomes...