By: Mohamed Ahmed
Course and Section Number: REHT 101_ 05
Date: 11th of May, 2012
B. Traditions of Female Circumcision
C. Thesis: Beliefs and practices of female circumcision in Upper Egypt II. Different types of circumcision
A. Cutting tip of clitoris
B. Most severe Cutting
III. Physical Cleanliness and Purity
A. Early Adulthood
B. Increasing of girls’ femininity
C. Producing more children
IV. Social Standing
A. Combination into the society
B. Ethical groups
C. Financial Situation
V. Religious Obligation
B. Raising Awareness
This paper analyzes some claims that are still believed by people in Upper Egypt towards the female genital mutilation. It also discusses the psychological and the physical harm that happens to the girl once she undergoes this procedure. This paper analyzes the female mutilation as cultural and religious behavior. It also shows that FGM consequences in many long-term medical complications, and it is a widespread process throughout Egypt.
Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt
The issue of female circumcision comes as a matter of heritage and traditions established in Upper Egypt, and also as a matter of neglected area. The Upper culture and heritage extends to more than 5 thousand years, and it influenced the upper people, and it formed their rigid personal inertia. That is why the issue of circumcision is associated with rigid traditions and heritage of a long practice before the existence of monotheistic religions. Despite the rumors that circumcision is usually an old Egyptian habit, but its roots actually did not grow in Egypt. It probably entered Egypt through Africa with the Abyssinian invasion in the past. There are many beliefs and practices of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) which have spread in Upper Egypt for a long time. In the South Upper of Egypt, there is the hardest types of circumcision (Purity of Sudan), in which they cut the external female genital organs, and they cut the major and the minor labia in partially or in fully parts, and then they sew the rest of the major labia on both sides, and they leave a hole for the exit of urine and blood of menstruation, and they called these mutilation as the Sudan Purity (Raya ). The target girls are those who have 4 - 8 years old, and sometimes it reaches to the age of fifteen. Many times this process is done with the absence of well trained doctors because of the shortage of money and the lack of medical services. It's rare to use the anesthesia. An old woman holds down the girl and forces her stay calm and not moving around. The mid-wife “El Dayh” used various and sharp items in order to remove the female organ. These instruments usually are not sterilized before or after practice. Once the process of genital mutilation is done, the child goes into painful days which may extend up to 40 days. This process causes complications such as bleeding, pain, trauma, pollution, infection, inflammation, and the injury of neighboring members, urine retention and the mental anguish. Despite the fact that the excision of the female organs distorts parts of the genitalia of the female, Upper Egyptians are still clinging to this habit.
People in Upper Egypt believe that the warm atmosphere helps the girl to early adulthood, causing a stir in the sexual instincts. They also believe that the darker the girl was, the more instinct the girl had, so this instinct should be removed by circumcision. In Upper Egypt society, if a girl didn't undergo this process of mutilation, she would not be considered to be an adult. As well as in many regions in Egypt there is no marriage for women without FGM. Female Genital Mutilation is a culture habit that has many...