Female Genital Mutilation

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Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION
Let us imagine that the atrocious World War Ⅱ has just now swept around the whole world, and yet there are no protections of Human Rights. In a completely devastated village there are a healthy Black man, 99-year-old Caucasian woman, an Asian boy, and a Black girl waiting for their savior. Finally, a rescue worker comes but he can only take three people and can never come back, which means he has to leave one behind. If you were in this situation which of the three would you care to rescue? Since World War Ⅱ, Human Rights has been internationalized and the order of Human Rights that international society cared to protect first was on 1965, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; 1979, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women[1]; 1989, Convention on the Rights of the Child[2]. Therefore, if the rescuer were to operate his rescuing activity according only to an orderly form of the above international treaties, a black girl would have been the last one to get saved, or left behind. Some might say that as the world has become globalized and internationalized, women have acquired their rights, but the question still remains; have women truly been eliminated from all forms of discrimination? The above imaginary situation is in fact exaggerated, though upon careful scrutiny of the Human Rights matter, even nowadays Black girls are not even protected from barbaric, evil tradition; “Female Genital Mutilation[3]” (hereinafter referred to as ‘FGM’). Bearing in mind that there are around 130 million women worldwide affected by FGM (Amnesty International est.) and recognizing hundreds and thousands of girls still going through this indescribably painful act; I would like to contemplate over various issues dealt in FGM. Moreover, I will also look through a violation of the rights of the child as FGM is nearly always carried out on minors, and what actions is there that international society can practice.

Ⅱ. ELIMINATING FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: THE IMPERATIVE

“Female Mutilation has no cultural, no traditional and no religious aspect. It is a man-made crime which seeks justice.” - Waris Dirie[4]

Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation
An interagency statement
OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO,
UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO

The term "female genital mutilation" (also called "female genital cutting" and "female genital mutilation/cutting") refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Between 100 and 140 million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone such procedures, and 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk of undergoing the procedures every year. Female genital mutilation has been reported to occur in all parts of the world, but it is most prevalent in: the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, some countries in Asia and the Middle East and among certain immigrant communities in North America and Europe.

Female genital mutilation has no known health benefits. On the contrary, it is known to be harmful to girls and women in many ways. First and foremost, it is painful and traumatic. The removal of or damage to healthy, normal genital tissue interferes with the natural functioning of the body and causes several immediate and long-term health consequences. For example, babies born to women who have undergone female genital mutilation suffer a higher rate of neonatal death compared with babies born to women who have not undergone the procedure.

Communities that practice female genital mutilation report a variety of social and religious reasons for continuing with it. Seen from a human rights perspective, the practice reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination...
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