By: H. LaFontaine, Biomass Energy Foundation, lnc. Miami, Florida And: F. P. Zimmerman, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy Division FEMA lnteragency Agreement Number: EMW-84-E-1737 Work Unit: 3521 D For:
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. 20472
"This report has been reviewed in the Federal Emergency Management Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency." Date Published: March 1989 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED
ABSTRACT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY S.1. PRINCIPLES OF SOLID FUEL GASIFICATION S.2. THE STRATIFIED, DOWNDRAIFT GASIFIER 1. WHAT 1S A WOOD GAS GENERATOR AND HOW DOES IT WORK? 1.1.INTRODUCTION 1.2.PRINCIPLES OF SOLID FUEL GASIFICATION 1.3.BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1.3.1.The World War II, Embowered Gasifier 1.3.2.The Stratified, Downdraft Gasifier 2. BUILDING YOUR OWN WOOD GAS GENERATOR 2.1. BUILDING THE GAS GENERATOR UNIT AND THE FUEL HOPPER 2.2. BUILDING THE PRIMARY FILTER UNIT. 2.3. BUILDING THE CARBURETING UNIT WITH THE AIR AND THROTTLE CONTROLS 3. OPERATING AND MAINTAINING YOUR WOOD GAS GENERATOR 3.1. USING WOOD AS A FUEL 3.2. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS AND ENGINE MODIFICATIONS 3.3. INITIAL START-UP PROCEDURE 3.4. ROUTINE START-UP PROCEDURE 3.5. DRIVING AND NORMAL OPERATION 3.6. SHUTTING DOWN THE GASIFIER UNIT
3.7. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE 3.7.1 Daily Maintenance 3.7.2 Weekly Maintenance (or every 15 hours of operation) 3.7.3 Biweekly Maintenance (or every 30 hours of operation) 3.8. OPERATING PROBLEMS AND TROUBLE-SHOOTING CONTENTS 3.9. HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH GASIFIER OPERATION 3.9.1. Toxic Hazards 3.9.2. Technical Aspects of "Generator Gas, Poisoning" 3.9.3. Fire Hazard APPENDICES APPENDIX I. APPENDIX II. APPENDIX III. APPENDIX IV. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR SI UNITS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES BIBLIOGRAPHY
ABSTRACT: CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLIFIED WOOD GAS GENERATOR FOR FUELING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN A PETROLEUM EMERGENCY H. LaFontaine, G. P. Zimmerman This report is one in a series of emergency technology assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The purpose of this report is to develop detailed, illustrated instructions for the fabrication, installation, and operation of a biomass gasifier unit (i.e., a 'producer gas' generator, also called a "wood gas' generator) that is capable of providing emergency fuel for vehicles, such as tractors and trucks, in the event that normal petroleum sources were severely disrupted for an extended period of time. These instructions have been prepared as a manual for use by any mechanic who is reasonably proficient in metal fabrication or engine repair. This report attempts to preserve the knowledge about wood gasification that was put into practical use during World War II. Detailed, step-by-step fabrication procedures are presented for a simplified version of the World War II, Embowered wood gas generator. This simple, stratified, downdraft gasifier unit can be constructed from materials that would be widely available in the United States in a prolonged petroleum crisis. For example, the body of the unit consists of a galvanized metal garbage can atop a small metal drum; common plumbing fittings throughout; and a large, stainless steel mixing bowl for the grate. The entire compact unit was mounted onto the front of a farm tractor and successfully field tested, using wood chips as the only fuel. Photographic documentation of the actual assembly of the unit as well as its operation is included.
This report is one in a series of emergency technology assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The purpose of this report is to develop detailed, illustrated instructions for the fabrication,...