Production of Bioethanol from next generation feed-stock alga Spirogyra species *Fuad Salem Eshaq
Department of Chemistry, Center for Environment, Jawarharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad- 500085, Andhra Pradesh (India).
Mir Naiman Ali
Department of Mirobiology, Mumtaz Degree & P.G College, Malakpet, Hyderabad-500036, Andhra Pradesh (India) firstname.lastname@example.org
Mazharuddin Khan Mohd.
Director for P.G. Studies, Head Dept. of Microbiology & Biotechnology P.G. Department of Mirobiology, Mumtaz Degree & P.G College, Malakpet, Hyderabad-500036, Andhra Pradesh (India)
ABSTRACT In the present study a novel and alternative feed-stock algae was used instead of traditional agro-based raw material for bioethanol production as algae do not compete with food, fodder and also easily available. Fresh water microscopic alga-Spirogyra was selected keeping in view the advantages of Spirogyra as it is rich in polysaccharides- starch and cellulose. The sun dried biomass of Spirogyra was grinded, sieved through 1mm sieve and fine powder was obtained. 50% of the powder was used directly for the saccharification and fermentation and remaining 50% of the powder was treated chemically and then used for saccharification and fermentation. Aspergillus niger MTCC 2196 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 170 were employed in present study. Fermentation experiments were carried out by two methods i.e. stationary and shaking. In general highest yield was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass in stationary fermentation, further yield was enhanced when enzyme inducer lactose was added. Key words: saccharification, fermentation, spirogyra, lactose, bioethanol, Introduction: Algae have recently received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy. From a greenhouse standpoint, renewable fuels such as ethanol are considered to be excellent alternative cleanburning fuels to gasoline in the future as the combustion products are environmentally safe (1). Today, the most common renewable fuel is ethanol derived mainly from glucose or starch sources of agricultural stock (2, 3). The human demand for food, however, has yet to be met. To solve both the energy and food problem, there has been increasing interest and worldwide studies in producing bioethanol from algal biomass, the alternative agricultural stock (4, 5, and 6). Microalgae, unicellular green algae, is well-known as photoautotrophic microorganisms having a great ability to fix CO2 and accumulate a high content of stored polysaccharides, mainly starch in complex multilayered cell walls (7, 8). This bears a strong structural and functional resemblance to higher plant storage starch (9). With high growth rate the microalgae can be easily cultured at high yields and low costs utilizing an unlimited energy source, sunlight (10, 11). A multitude of Algae Based
ISSN : 0975-5462
Vol. 3 No. 2 Feb 2011
Fuad Salem Eshaq et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)
Biofuel (ABB) pathways are possible and need to be determined on a case by case basis. Most notable is the absence of lignin in algae. Algae have some beneficial characteristics compared to woody biomass furthermore; algae composition is much more uniform and consists of more biomass than terrestrial plants, because algae lack specific functional parts such as roots and leaves. Algal cell walls are largely made up of polysaccharides, which can be hydrolyzed to sugar. Using algae for ethanol production is as such at an early stage and not much can be concluded yet about its strengths and weakness and is therefore not investigable further in this aspect. Nevertheless, its further development deserves attention. These advantages allow microalgae to be preferentially selected as safe prospective feedstock for bioethanol production. The...