Feedbacks in Classroom

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Introduction
Feedbacks are something important in the learning life of a student. Feedback, or information given to students as they participate in daily activities, provides a key link to maintaining a positive approach to behavior and the curriculum materials being presented (Arthur-Kelly et. Al, 2006). It is considered as an acknowledgement of what they have learned and also the effort that they have put in the work that was given to them. Given the right feedback, it will be taken in as a motivation and will drive them to perform better. However, feedbacks also may cause different reactions if the students were to take the feedback in a different route. Some might get complacent from all the good feedback that they get or those who got negative feedbacks might be demotivated due to feeling worthless and inadequate.

Among the most common type of feedbacks used in classroom are praise and criticism. Praise is usually used to respond to the students’ good results or effort and criticism is usually used to pinpoint the mistakes or inadequacy of the students. Both may bring to the effect that it will motivate the students to work harder in their learning and achieve more, as they know that the teacher is noticing their effort in the learning process. This is because, in a classroom, the teacher is seen as the source of information and wisdom and to get some acknowledgment and appreciation from the teacher is something highly desirable.

However, due to how easily said are these praise and criticisms, the recipient might take it for granted or to the other extreme, heavily. One might think that no matter how much effort and knowledge that he or she showcases, the teacher will react the same for all of them and maybe will start slacking after a few while. On the other hand, if a child is constantly being criticize for his or her work, they might get demotivated and decided not to strive for excellence for they think that they are inadequate.

This case study intends to look at how praise and criticism affect the students’ motivation in study and also their academic achievement. It is hope by this case study; some insights on the type of feedbacks that will be suitable to be applied in classroom in order to encourage the students to work better in their study and academic achievement. Literature review

Studies have shown that teacher’s praise and criticism have numerous effects towards students’ motivation and academic achievement. According to Brophy (1981), the functions and effects of feedbacks are determined by the context of a given teacher–student interaction. This is to say, the outcomes depend on how teacher conveys the messages, and how students receive the input. There are two categories for praise and criticism based on these readings: 1. Ability (or person) expresses a global evaluation of the students’ performance 2. Effort (or process) expresses a narrow evaluation of the students’ effort, or strategies

Past Research on Praise
Both effort and ability praise benefits students. However, there are different views on which one is better in promoting motivation and performance. Schunk (1996) found that praise for ability sometimes had a more beneficial effect on children's achievement motivation, in particular their self-efficacy, than praise for effort. In addition, Miller et al. (1975) found that children told that they were "very good" and had "excellent ability'' in mathematics improved their performance more than children told that they had worked hard. Contrastively, Butler (1988) found that children receiving effort praise showed higher levels of awareness, challenge-seeking and improved performance on the task than children receiving other forms of praise. However, most past research has inclined to study the effects of praise while the individual is succeeding. An important question yet to be presented is how these students will fare when faced with failure after getting praise...
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