D. Technical Aspects
a. Production program
1. Products: hot and cold coffee, coffee blends, cakes and pastries 2. By-products:
1000kg of fresh berry gives about 400kg of wet waste pulp and only 160kg of exportable green bean (Source: Jan von Enden - An Introduction to Good Manufacturing Practices for Post Harvest Processing of Arabica Coffee in Vietnam). Coffee pulp is mainly composed of water and sugar. The sugar can be fermented by bacteria and acidified, resulting in a bad smell. The water leaking from the pulp can be highly acidic. Hence, treating waste pulp is as important as treating the wastewater. There are several ways in which this by-product can be utilized. Coffee pulp is a source of nutrients: 0.5% of composted pulp is nitrogen, 0.15% is phosphorus, and 0.5% is potassium. Therefore, pulp can be treated and used as organic fertiliser. The pulp is left in piles, and after 3 to 12 months, it turns into rich, black humus, and can be used for composting. Another way of composting is to mix coffee husk with cattle manure, and leave the mixture in pits or heaps. The use of organic fertilizer helps to improve soil properties thus increasing yield as shown through investigations in Columbia. Using organic fertilizers also helps to reduce the need to buy inorganic fertilizers, hence saving the farmers money . Coffee pulp can be used as planting soil for mushroom production. After being fermented for two days, the pulp is pasteurized with hot water, drained, dried, and mixed with mushroom spores. Then, they are put in plastic bags. After 3 - 4 weeks, the mushrooms grow out of the holes in the bags and are collected. One bag allows 2 - 3 mushroom-harvests. The mushroom can be eaten or dried and sold in the market. Considering the large amount of coffee pulp generated every harvesting season, the income from mushroom growing is significant for farmers. As it is rich in nutrients, coffee pulp can be dried and used in animal feeds. If used this way, the pulp...
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