Feasibility Study of Beauty Salon

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Croup

Croup also refers to the rump of a quadruped and the crop of a bird. For the work of a casino employee, see croupier. Croup|
Classification and external resources|

The steeple sign as seen on an AP neck X-ray of a child with croup| ICD-10| J05.0|
ICD-9| 464.4|
DiseasesDB| 13233|
MedlinePlus| 000959|
eMedicine| ped/510 emerg/370radio/199|
MeSH| D003440|
Croup (or laryngotracheobronchitis) is a respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a "barking" cough, stridor, and hoarseness. It may produce mild, moderate, or severe symptoms, which often worsen at night. It is often treated with a single dose of oralsteroids; occasionally epinephrine is used in more severe cases. Hospitalization is rarely required. Croup is diagnosed on clinical grounds, once potentially more severe causes of symptoms have been excluded (i.e. epiglottitis or an airway foreign body). Further investigations—such as blood tests, X-rays, and cultures—are usually not needed. It is a relatively common condition that affects about 15% of children at some point, most commonly between 6 months and 5–6 years of age. It is almost never seen in teenagers or adults. Once due primarily to diphtheria, this cause is now primarily of historical significance in the Western world due to the success of vaccination, and improved hygiene and living standards. -------------------------------------------------

Signs and symptoms
Croup is characterized by a "barking" cough, stridor, hoarseness, and difficult breathing which usually worsens at night.[1] The "barking" cough is often described as resembling the call of a seal or sea lion.[2] The stridor is worsened by agitation or crying, and if it can be heard at rest, it may indicate critical narrowing of the airways. As croup worsens, stridor may decrease considerably.[1] Other symptoms include fever, coryza (symptoms typical of the common cold), and chest wallindrawing.[1][3] Drooling or a very sick appearance indicate other medical conditions.[3] -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Causes
Croup is usually deemed to be due to a viral infection.[1][4] Others use the term more broadly, to include acute laryngotracheitis, spasmodic croup, laryngeal diphtheria, bacterial tracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis. The first two conditions involve a viral infection and are generally milder with respect to symptomatology; the last four are due to bacterial infection and are usually of greater severity.[2] [edit]Viral

Viral croup or acute laryngotracheitis is caused by parainfluenza virus, primarily types 1 and 2, in 75% of cases.[5] Other viral etiologies include influenza A and B, measles, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).[2] Spasmodic croup is caused by the same group of viruses as acute laryngotracheitis, but lacks the usual signs of infection (such as fever, sore throat, and increased white blood cell count).[2] Treatment, and response to treatment, are also similar.[5] [edit]Bacterial

Bacterial croup may be divided into laryngeal diphtheria, bacterial tracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis.[2] Laryngeal diphtheria is due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae while bacterial tracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis are usually due to a primary viral infection with secondary bacterial growth. The most common bacteria implicated are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae,Hemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.[2] -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Pathophysiology
The viral infection that causes croup leads to swelling of the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi[4] due to infiltration...
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