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  • Topic: Ethanol fuel, Sunflower, Gasoline
  • Pages : 73 (15844 words )
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  • Published : January 18, 2013
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Chapter 1


1.1 Introduction

VJK Bio-fuel is a sunflower farm and a gasoline station specialized in producing bio-ethanol. The proponents chose this business because people now are much concerned with the huge amount of money they spend on their gasoline, and this product will somehow provide them another option. Moreover, this product is made primarily in concern to the mother earth or the environment, because it would not contribute in destroying our environment. Bio-ethanol has also an overwhelming advantage of its potential to be carbon neutral on a lifecycle basis meaning the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted during its use is offset by the absorption from the atmosphere during its growth, and greenhouse gas can be reduced by 90% with bio-ethanol compared to petrol. Bio-ethanol also has an advantage of lower tax because this product is mandated by law. Ethanol fuel is an alternative to gasoline. It can be combined with gasoline in any concentration up to pure ethanol (E100). Anhydrous ethanol, that is, ethanol with at most 1% water, can be blended with gasoline in varying quantities to reduce consumption of petroleum fuels and in attempts to reduce air pollution. In the United States, ethanol capabilities vary widely and most spark-ignited gasoline style engines will operate well with mixtures of 10% ethanol (E10). In Brazil, ethanol-powered and flexible-fuel vehicles are manufactured to be capable of operation by burning hydrated ethanol, an azeotrope of ethanol (around 93% v/v) and water (7%). Hydrated ethanol may also be mixed with gasoline in flexible fuel vehicles but a minimum amount of ethanol (granted by legally regulated gasoline type C) is required to avoid problems with the mixture. A few flexible-fuel systems, like Hi-Flex, used by Renault Clio and Fiat Siena, can also run with pure gasoline. Ethanol is increasingly used as an oxygenate additive for standard gasoline, as a replacement for methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), the latter chemical being difficult to retrieve from groundwater and soil contamination. At a 10% mixture, ethanol reduces the likelihood of engine knock, by raising the octane rating. The use of 10% ethanol gasoline is mandated in some cities where the possibilities of harmful levels of auto emissions are possible, especially during the winter months. Ethanol can be used to power fuel cells, and also as a feed chemical in the Trans esterification process for biodiesel. Ethanol can be mass-produced by fermentation of sugar or by hydration of ethylene from petroleum and other sources. Current interest in ethanol lies in production derived from crops (bio-ethanol), and there is a discussion about whether it is a sustainable energy resource that may offer environmental and long-term economic advantages over fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel. It is readily obtained from the starch or sugar in a wide variety of crops. Ethanol fuel production depends on availability of land area, soil, water, and sunlight. In 2004, around 42 billion liters of ethanol were produced in the world, most of it being for use in cars. Brazil produced around 16.4 billion liters and used 2.7 million hectares of land area for this production, or 4.5% of Brazilian land area used for crop production in 2005. Around 12.4 billion liters were produced as fuel to ethanol-powered vehicles in domestic market. In the Philippines, President Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo launched the fuel ethanol program in May 2005 in San Carlos, Negros Occidental when she led the groundbreaking of the country’s first bio-ethanol manufacturing plant of San Carlos Bio-Energy. The fuel ethanol program aims to replace 10 percent of the imported gasoline with domestically-produced fuel ethanol (initially at 5 percent increasing to 10 percent as the program progresses). The Department of Energy (DOE) is pushing for the passage of the Bioethanol Bill which provides for the mandatory use of bioethanol in the second year of...
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