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Introduction to Logic
1.Definition of Logic

Logic is derived from the greek word Logos which means “spoken word”, “speech”. Or “reason”. It was introduced by Zeno, a Greek Philosopher, through his use of the term logike which means “discourse of thinking” or “treatise on thought”. It is formally defined as a science and an art of correct thinking. It is also considered as a science that deals with valid reasoning and argument.

2. Logic as Science
Logic consists of systematized and certain knowledge of the principles which govern correct thinking. It is not based on mere opinion or hypothesis, but on certain and demonstrated knowledge.

3. Logic as Art
Logic directs reason itself. Through logic man’s reason is guided so that it can proceed according to a system or order with ease and cautious avoidance of error as it draws definitions and understands terms, propositions, syllogisms and fallacies.

4. Importance of Logic
By studying Logic, a student shall be able to obtain the truth and the validity of any arguments. It will reduce the possibility of being deceived by faulty arguments of others and falling into their traps. Logic enhances our ability to clarify even our own beliefs and decide whether our beliefs are worthy of assent. It will help us distinguish the difference between a correct and an incorrect reasoning. Moreover, Logic is aimed at equipping us with efficient reasoning skills to help us make wise decisions about what to believe and do.

5. Thinking refers to any or to all the movements of the mind such as imagining, recalling, memorizing, comprehending, analyzing, day-dreaming or solving problems. In logic, thinking means inference.

INFERENCE- getting a truth or conclusion from something formerly known to the thinker.

2 KINDS OF INFERENCE

1.Inductive Inference
Draws a universal or general conclusion from a series of individual interrelated facts.

2.Deductive Inference
Draws a particular conclusion on the basis of...

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