Submitted By: Subhajit Ray Department of Humanities and Social Sciences IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur-721302
Initially the Indian policy makers were quite apprehensive about the flow of foreign capital into the economy. This can be attributed to the colonial past which saw large investments being made by their colonial rulers in the form of major infrastructure instruments like railways but only to make huge gains for themselves and sucking the host country of its resources. But currently the global economy has been witnessing an incessant form of economic growth characterized by the flow of capital from the developed world to the developing countries. During the 1990s Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) became the single largest source of external finance for the developing countries. When faced with an economic crisis during the same period the Indian policy makers had to open up the Indian market and accordingly India has been seeing a consistent increase in FDI inflows. Indian economy has been showing high growth rates in the post liberalization era. In the last fiscal year according to the Planning commission’s data the Indian economy recorded a growth rate of 8.6% and 8% in the year before. This is reason enough to call it a high performing economy. All Multi National Enterprises (MNEs) have been eyeing the Indian market ever since they have opened up. The policy makers have been vigorously pursuing the reforms program as they believe that high growth has been the resultant of economic liberalization. FDI has been seen as a dominant determinant to achieve high rate of economic growth because of the ease with which it can bring in scarce capital, triggers technology transfer and enhances the efficiency by increasing the competitiveness of the market. Also FDI as a form of policy instrument to raise capital is usually preferred over other forms of external finance because they are non-debt creating, non-volatile and their returns depend on the performance of the projects financed by the investors. FDI is successful in human capital formation, increases total factor productivity and efficiency of resource use. But such benefits are highly dependent on the policies of the host government. It is furthermore described as a source of economic development, modernization, and employment generation. Several factors both political and apolitical have led to a greater acceptance of FDI. The envisioned role of FDI has evolved from that of a tool to solve the crisis under the license raj system to that of a modernizing force of the Indian economy. In support of their endeavor the policy makers have often cited the example of the Chinese experience of achieving high growth rate through foreign direct investment. India has opened up its economy and allowed MNEs in the core sectors such as Power and Fuels, Electrical Equipments, Transport, Chemicals, Food Processing, 2
Metallurgical, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, Textiles, and Industrial Machinery as a part of reform process started in the beginning of 1990s. Currently FDI is also permissible in the Telecommunications, Banking, Insurance and IT sector. Currently there is huge debate going on about allowing FDI in retail. This paper aims to discuss the critical aspects of FDI in India, present a case study on the success of reforms in the telecommunications sector, analyze both sides of the arguments currently going on regarding FDI in retail and conclude with suggestive measures on the part of the government which can eliminate the negative effects of allowing FDI in India’s retail sector.
Assessing the impact of FDI on host economy- a review of various economic literatures: FDI inflow into the core sectors is assumed to play a vital role as a source of capital management and technology in countries of transition economies. It implies that FDI can have positive effects on a host economy’s...