Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know- how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.
Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) look upon FDI as one the easiest means to fulfill their financial, technical, employment generation and competitive efficiency requirements. Gradually they also realized that substantial economic growth is inevitable without global integration of business process. This created opportunities for locational advantages and thus facilitated strategic alliances, joint ventures and collaborations over R & D.
The world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI flow from developed nations to EMEs in 1980s and 1990s compared to earlier decades. The hostile attitude of developing nations regarding multinationals investment has become generous during this transition period. FDI was fostered by liberalisation and market-based reforms in EMEs. The financial sector deregulation and reforms in the industrial policy further paved the way for global investments.
There is clearly an intense global competition for FDI. India has emerged as the second most attractive destination for FDI after China and ahead of the US, Russia and Brazil. In view of these facts, the present paper takes stock of current status of FDI in India, aims to find reasons for comparatively lesser flow of FDI and suggest measures to boost flow of FDI to India.
What Is FDI (Foreign Direct Investment)???
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is direct investment into production in a country by a company in another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Foreign direct investment is done for many reasons including to take advantage of cheaper wages, special investment privileges such as tax exemptions offered by the country as an incentive to gain tariff-free access to the markets of the country or the region. Foreign direct investment is in contrast to portfolio investment which is a passive investment in the securities of another country such as stocks and bonds.
FDI refers to the net inflows of investment(inflow minus outflow) to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. It usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. There are two types of FDI: inward and outward, resulting in a net FDI inflow (positive or negative) and "stock of foreign direct investment", which is the cumulative number for a given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.FDI is one example of...