FDI plays a vital role in the economy because it does not only provide opportunities to host countries to enhance their economic development but also opens new vistas to home countries to optimize their earnings by employing their ideal resources.
India has sought to increase inflows of FDI with a much liberal policy since 1991 after decade's cautious attitude. The 1990's have witnessed a sustained rise in annual inflows to India. Basically, opening of the economy after 1991 does not live much choice but to attract the foreign investment, as an engine of dynamic growth especially in view of fast paced movement of the world forward Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization.
Limits for FDI
FDI in the banking sector has been liberalized by raising FDI limit in private sector banks to 74 per cent under automatic root including investment by foreign investment in India. The aggregate foreign investment in a private bank from all sources will be 74 per cent of paid-up capital of the bank.
FDI and Portfolio investment in nationalized banks are subject to overall statutory limit of 20 per cent. The same ceiling also applies in respect of such investment in State Bank of India and its associate banks.
The Present Banking Scenario
In recent times economy is been pushing to increase the role of multi-national banks in the banking and insurance sector, despite, the concern expressed by the left communist parties are opposing the finance minister move to raise overseas investment limits in the insurance business. The government wants to fulfill a pledge to allow companies like New York Life Insurance, Met Life Insurance to raise investment in local companies to 49 per cent from 26 per cent.
But it is opposed on the front that it will lead to state run insurers loosing business and workers their job. Left do not want foreign investors to have greater voting rights in private banks and oppose the privatization of state run pension fund.
There are several reasons why such move is fraught with dangers. When domestic or foreign investors acquire a large share holding in any bank and exercise proportionate voting rights, it creates potential problems not only of excursive concentration in the banking sector but also can expose the economy to more intensive financial crises at the slightest hint of panic.
Opposition is not considering the need of present situation. FDI in banking sector can solve various problems of the overall banking sector. Such as –
i) Innovative Financial Products
ii) Technical Developments in the Foreign Markets
iii) Problem of Inefficient Management
iv) Non-performing Assets
v) Financial Instability
vi) Poor Capitalization
vii) Changing Financial Market Conditions
If we consider the root cause of these problems, the reason is low-capital base and all the problems is the outcome of the transactions carried over in a bank without a substantial capital base. In a nutshell, we can say that, as the FDI is a non-debt inflow, which will directly solve the problem of capital base. Along with that it entails the following benefits such as –
As due to the globalization local banks are competing in the global market, where innovative financial products of multinational banks is the key limiting factor in the development of local bank. They are trying to keep pace with the technological development in the banks. Now a days banks have been prominent and prudent in the rapid expansion of consumer lending in domestic as well as in foreign markets. It needs appropriate tools to assess (how such credit is managed) credit management of the banks and authorities in charge of financial stability. It may need...