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Environmental Ethics
* Humans are responsible for welfare and sustenance of the global environment * The relationship between humankind and the universe:
* Consideration and contemplation of the universe
* Relationship of sustainable utilisation, development and employment * Relationship of care and nurture
* Three concepts of environmental ethics:
* Tahwid (unity) – Uniqueness of Allah and integrity of his creations * Khilafa (Stewardship) – Respect and care for creation and its maintenance * Akhira (Accountability) – Muslims are accountable for their use and abuse of creation * In practice, current status quo in Muslim countries is not noticeable different from that in the rest of the world * Modern industrial culture has overtaken traditional culture and it is only in recent times that the environmental damage that comes with industrialisation has been realised.

* In Muslim countries, there are now areas in which development is forbidden as to conserve natural resources * Practical laws to safeguard water resources, to prevent overgrazing, to conserve and regenerate forests, and to limit the size of cities. * Do not kill animals carelessly and have imposed rituals to ensure it is as merciful as possible.

Relevant Passages:
Sura 7:31 – Do not waste resources
Sura 6:38 – Interdependence of humans and animals
Sura 2:28-29 – The earth created for human beings
Sura 30:30 – Follow Allah’s intentions for the world
Bukhari Hadith – Live in this world as if you were going to live forever

Modern Context:
* Assisi Declaration, an inter-faith meeting in 1986 to discuss issues of the environment, including a Muslim declaration on religion and nature. * The Ohito Declaration on Religions, Land and Conservation was issued, giving guidelines for future action in caring for the environment
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