Fayol’s Principles was introduced by Henri Fayol. Henri Fayol was born in Instanbul, Paris in 29th July 1841. He was a French mining engineer and also a director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration. He proposed 14 principles of management in 1916 , 1. Division of work
Division of work means the separation of a work process into a number of tasks, with each task performed by a separate person or group of persons This principle is the same as Adam Smith’s “Division of labor “. This principle allows job specialization .Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient and also specializing encourages continuous improvement in skills (improves performances, ability and accuracy) and the development of improvements in methods. Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. The advantage of this principle is that workers will get used to what they are doing because it keeps on repeating in doing the same things, so that they can work faster and will have a high accuracy of work. The disadvantage of this principle is that workers will get bored of repeating the same task everyday and this can lead to boredom. It is better to give a rotation of task to each group after it has reached a period of time so that workers will not get bored and they will learn new things, but of course we have to see if the task can be performed by each individual or not, some workers can’t do some task, so that we have to take notice of it. For example in Monarch Beverage Company which is formed in 1947. In order to produce beer and wine in a large amount each day, it strategically structured into six separate business divisions that work closely together as an integrated team (“Company Structure,” Monarch Beverage Company, accessed in August, 21 ,2011, http://www.monarch-beverage.com/Pages/Company/CompanyGeneral.aspx?PageId=39 ).By doing that each workers in each division can focus on their own simple work and perform faster and better.
2. Authority and Responsibility
Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. However responsibility and authority must balance (http://managementinnovations.wordpress.com/2008/12/04/henri-fayols-14-principles-of-management/). Wherever authority is exercised responsibility arises. The application of essential to good management, and is needed to encourage useful actions and discourage their opposite. The best safeguard against abuse of authority is the personal integrity of the manager ( Mullins, 2005, chapter 6 ‘The Nature of Management’, p.9).
Characteristics of authority and responsibility are duties to perform , responsibility comes from authority( http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm) , power to command , decision making. (http://www.bizearly.com/2009/12/14-principles-of-management-by-henry-fayol/)
The advantage of authority and responsibility are have the power to enforce obedience or compliance and right to control others. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_authority_and_responsibility)
The disadvantage of authority and responsibility are sometimes people misuse their authority.
For example, the production manager is answerable to the General Manager if the production is very less. He cannot say that he has delegated the responsibility to the production engineer. People often seek of authority but fear of responsibility. The fear of responsibility spoils initiative and destroys other good qualities. Authority without responsibility and responsibility without Authority are the major defects of any organization. Therefore, management should clearly arrange and...