II.Biography of Faye Abdellah
Faye Glenn Abdellah is a pioneer nursing researcher who formulated the Typology of 21 Nursing Problems. Faye Glenn Abdellah was born on March 13, 1919 in New York City. She finished her basic nursing education, magna cum laude in 1942 from Fitkin Memorial Hospital School of Nursing in Neptune, New Jersey and obtained her Bachelor of Science in 1945, her Masters of Arts in 1947 and her Doctor of Education in1955 from the Teachers College at Columbia University. She is a former Chief Nurse Officer for the U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Servces, Washington D.C. Faye Glenn Abdellah is the first nurse and first woman to work as Deputy Surgeon of the United States. She has been a leader in nursing research and has over one hundred publications related to nursing care, education, for advanced practice in nursing and nursing research. Because of Faye Glenn Abdellah’s contributions in transforming nursing theory, nursing care and nursing education she was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2000. She is also a beneficiary of both national and international awards.
III.Faye Abdellah: 21 Nursing Problems
Faye Glenn Abdellah’s theory proposes that nursing is the utilization of the problem-solving techniques with chief nursing problems related to the health requirements of clients. It gives much importance to problem solving medium for the nursing problems as the client is geared in the direction of health which is the outcome. 21 NURSING PROBLEMS
Three major categories
•Physical, sociological, and emotional needs of clients
•Types of interpersonal relationships between the nurse and patient •Common elements of client care
BASIC TO ALL PATIENTS
1.To maintain good hygiene and physical comfort
2.To promote optimal activity: exercise, rest and sleep
3.To promote safety through the prevention of accidents, injury, or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection 4.To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformity SUSTENAL CARE NEEDS
5.To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells 6. To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells 7. To facilitate the maintenance of elimination
8.To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance 9.To recognize the physiological responses of the body to disease conditions 10.To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions 11.To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function.
REMEDIAL CARE NEEDS
12.To identify and accept positive and negative expressions, feelings, and reactions 13.To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness 14.To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and non verbal communication 15.To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships 16.To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals 17.To create and / or maintain a therapeutic environment
18.To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical , emotional, and developmental needs RESTORATIVE CARE NEEDS
19.To accept the optimum possible goals in the light of limitations, physical and emotional 20.To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness 21.To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the case of illness
IV.MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS, CONCEPTS & RELATIONSHIPS
•She uses the term ‘she’ for nurses, ‘he’ for doctors and patients, and refers to the object of nursing as ‘patient’ rather than client or consumer. •She referred to Nursing diagnosis during a time when nurses were taught that diagnosis was not a nurses’ prerogative. Assumptions were related to:
•change and anticipated changes that affect nursing;
•the need to appreciate the interconnectedness of social enterprises and social problems; •the impact of problems such as poverty,...