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  • Topic: Sprint, Specific strength, Strength of materials
  • Pages : 12 (4381 words )
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  • Published : May 11, 2013
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DEVELOPMENT OF MAXIMUM SPRINTING SPEED
By Frank W. Dick, BAAB Director of Coaching, Great Britain
The 15th Annual Congress of the European Athletics Coaches Association (held in East Germany last January) focused on sprints and hurdles. We are fortunate to have this contribution firom EACA president and British director of coaching Frank Dick. Dick analyzes the Seoul 100m results and points out the important differences in sprint technique and training between men and women. REPRINTED FROM TRACK TECHNIQUE #109

THE DISCIPLINE To the winner of the Olympic 100m goes the accolade “The world’s fastest man/woman.” It is a discipline where the focus of achievement in terms of improved performance and/or in terms of defeating opponents is measured in tiny time increments: increments of personal performance improvement may be as small as 1/100th second; while the difference between a gold and silver medal may require examination of photo finish detail to 1/100th second. In preparing an athlete to challenge performance standards and opposition in pursuit of eventual Olympic success, the coach must reject the old adage that “sprinters are born not made.” Instead, he should consider the needs of the athlete against the demands of the discipline; evaluate potential contribution of all relevant resources; and then prepare custom built programs designed to meet short-, medium- and long-term objectives. THE DISCIPLINE SECTIONS a) Reaction and Response Speed b) Starting Acceleration c) Pickup Acceleration = Reaction time and 10m time = 30m time = Distance required to achieve maximum speed d) Maintaining Maximum = Distance maximum Speed speed held e) Reducing the rate of = Distance over which loss of maximum near-maximum is held speed after maximum speed peak is passed

10M BREAKDOWN IN SEOUL FINALS To illustrate these, we should look at the data made available by the IAAF Biornechanical Analysis program from the Seoul Olympic 100 finals. 100m MEN’S FINAL JOHNSON 10 1.83 20 2.87 1.04 30 3.80 .93 40 4.66 .86 50 5.50 .84 60 6.33 .83 70 7.17 .84 80 8.02 .85 90 8.89 .87 100 9.79 .90

LEWIS 1.89 2.96 3.90 4.79 5.65 6.48 7.33 8.18 9.04 9.92

1.07 .94 .89 .86 .83 .85 .85 .86 .88

CHRISTIE 1.92 2.97 1.05 3.92 .95 4.81 .89 5.66 .85 6.50 .84 7.36 .86 8.22 .86 9.09 .87 9.97 .88

100m WOMEN’S FINAL GRIFFITH JOYNER ASHFORD DRECHSLER 10 2.00 2.02 2.01 20 3.09 1.09 3.13 1.11 3.12 1.11 30 4.09 1.00 4.15 1.02 4.14 1.02 40 5.04 .95 5.11 .96 5.11 .97 50 5.97 .93 6.07 .97 6.08 .97 60 6.89 .92 7.01 .94 7.02 .94 70 7.80 .91 7.96 .95 7.97 .95 80 8.71 .91 8.91 .95 8.92 .95 90 9.62 .91 9.87 .96 9.88 .96 100 10.54 .92 10.83 .96 10.85 .97 Brief comment on these sections is made here:

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a) The 10m performances for the first three men showthat the pattern of the race for them was being laid down very early. The difference between the first three women’s 10m performances was rather less significant. b) The men’s 30m times clearly separate Johnson from the field, 0.01 sec. was sufficient difference for Lewis to be aware of Johnson’s lead and what this meant. It should be borne in mind that from this point onwards, the data should not be read simply as a series of sprinting speed measures, but as products of the complex process of athletes expressing their techniques aware of the challenges of the opposition. c) The final phase of acceleration would appear from the data presented here, to bring athletes to maximum speed in the 50m and 60m section of the run— except in the case of Griffith Joyner. We shall consider this phase further here. d) For every athlete except Griffith Joyner, maximum speed was maintained for one 10m section. If we consider as maximum speed “fastest 10m time and fastest 10m time + 0.01 sec,” we have varying profiles: JOHNSON 40m-50m 0.84 50m-60m 0.83 60m-70m 0.84 GRIFFITH JOYNER 50m-60m 60m-70m 70m-80m 80m-90m 90m-100m LEWIS 50m-60m 0.83 CHRISTIE 40m-50m 0.85 50m-60m 0.84

JohnsonLewis encounter since Rome, that the two...
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