Theories are vital tools because they
D. provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children.
Question 2 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
The stage concept assumes that change is
A. development is a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with.
B. change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing.
C. infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do.
D. development is a smooth, continuous process.
Question 3 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
Dr. Kudrow views development as open to change in response to influential experiences. Dr. Kudrow probably emphasizes
Question 4 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
The most consistent asset of resilient children is
A. being identified as gifted.
B. a strong bond to a competent, caring adult.
C. access to high-quality child care.
D. high self-esteem.
Question 5 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
Which of the following is true about Charles Darwin's contribution to developmental theories?
A. He proved that the development of the human child following the same general plan as the evolution of the human species.
B. He launched the normative approach, in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
C. He proved that human development is a genetically determined process that unfolds automatically, much like a flower.
D. Scientific child study was born out of his first attempts to document an idea about development.
Question 6 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence test was developed as a way to
A. measure individual differences in development as a function of race, gender, and birth order.
B. accurately predict school achievement and vocational success.
C. identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes.
D. document developmental improvements in children's intellectual functioning.
Question 7 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
Which of the following is a reason the psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development research?
A. Psychoanalytic theorists become isolated from the rest of the field because they failed to consider the early parent-child relationship.
B. Many psychoanalytic ideas, such as ego functioning, are too vague to be tested empirically.
C. Psychoanalytic theorists accept the clinical method in which age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
D. Modern researchers have demonstrated that personality development does not take place in stages.
Question 8 of 25 0.4/ 0.4 Points
When John Watson taught Albert, an 11-month-old infant, to fear a neutral stimulus by presenting it several times with a sharp, loud sound, Watson applied _____________________ to children's behavior.
A. classical conditioning.
Question 9 of 25 0.4/ 0.4 Points
Every time 10-month-old Rita eats a pea, her father claps and says, "Good girl!" In response to her father's praise, Rita excitedly eats the remaining peas. Rita's behavior is an example of ____________.
A. operant conditioning.
Question 10 of 25 0.4/ 0.4 Points
At home, Paul's parents hit him as punishment for misbehavior. At preschool, Paul angrily hits a playmate who takes his toy. According to social learning theory, Paul is displaying ________________.
D. observational learning.
Question 11 of 25 0.0/ 0.4 Points
Both behaviorism and social learning theory have been criticized for
A. presenting ideas that are too vague to test empirically.
B. underestimating children's contributions to their own development.
C. overestimating children's contributions to their own development.
D. emphasizing nature over nurture.
Question 12 of 25 0.4/ 0.4...