Family Counseling Approach Research Paper
A family counseling approach is a counseling theory that includes a combination of a variety of techniques, interventions, and tenets are used to address the needs of family members. Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy developed by Sigmond Freud. He was the first therapist to explore talk therapy as a viable means for treating psychological disorders. Psychotherapy serves as an umbrella concept for psychotherapeutic treatments. The family counseling approach is based upon psychoanalytic philosophies, interventions, and techniques. Classical psychoanalytic techniques and interventions are discussed and explained. Counseling from a Christian perspective assists the counselor with focusing on one’s own performance based upon self-awareness and self-tests. A Christian worldview within family counseling affects the counselor and the client. While working with a client, the counselor can focus on the proper application of the American Counseling Association, ACA, and the American Association of Christian Counselors, AACC, Codes of Ethics. Integrating the Codes of Ethics into daily practice helps the counselor to develop one’s sense of self along with their biases, limitations, and strengths. Biblical values allow the Christian family therapist the opportunity to show clients ways Christ can guide their life.
Part I: Research
Psychoanalysis forged its’ way into modern day therapies by founder Sigmund Freud. “Psychoanalysis is based upon the idea that humans are motivated by conflicts between unconscious and conscious forces (Murdock, 2009, p. 63). Freud was the first to “explore the talk therapy approach as treatment for psychological dysfunction” (Murdock, 2011, p. 30). The Freudian schema explains the contrasts as “an unconscious and a preconscious, an ego, and an id, reality and fantasy, transference and a real relationship, a pleasure principle and a real relationship, neurosis and relative normality” (Friedman, 2002, p. 2). Research starting in the 1970s provides support for the “basic tenet that unconscious association networks, (thoughts, wishes, beliefs, fantasies), and unconscious procedures, (motives, defenses, character), control behavior outside awareness” (Gilhooley, 2008, p. 93). It is important to realize there has been change in psychoanalysis throughout the years. According to Giannoni (2003), “we should be prepared to accept the fact that psychoanalysis has changed as well, in tune with the historical-cultural changes . . .” (Giannoni, 2003, p. 645). Clients can benefit from the processes of psychoanalysis while conducting talk therapy, free association, and dream analysis as directly related to current and early relationships. A treatment plan is developed in order to address signs and symptoms of depression, anxiety, or other psychological disorders that may arise in family therapy. “Family therapy began to flourish in the 1960s. . .” (Slipp, 1982). The results of this type of therapy are multiple techniques and interventions are supported by the psychoanalytic theory. These will provide support and treatment of presenting concerns of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety. Goals
The role of psychotherapy is to “serve as an umbrella concept for psychotherapeutic treatments that operate on an interpretive-supportive (or expressive-supportive) continuum” (Leichsenring, Hiller, Weissberg & Leibing, 2006). The central constructs of the psychoanalytic theory are the structural model, including the id, ego, and superego along with symptoms as symbols, and defense mechanisms. The primary goals of psychoanalysis include “symptom relief, increased self-awareness, and a more objective capacity for self-observation” (Fine, 2003, p. 789). From a psychoanalytic point of view, the goal for counseling is insight into the causes of...