October 30, 2012
Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Middle childhood is the period of life that occurs between the ages 7 and 11. During these times of children lives they are in school and are making many different friends, and their cognitive and physical skills are enhancing. On the other hand, middle childhood period normally introduce individuals into new sets of challenges; not only for the child but for the parents as well. After middle childhood comes the adolescence stage, this period of life children face drastic changes. This stage can range from as early as 8 years old to 18. This essay will describe changes that occur during middle childhood and adolescence concerning family and peer relationships, and how they might influence future development. Established and caring families are central components throughout middle childhood and adolescence developmental stage. The way a family works and cares for its member is called family function. The most vital family function is to provide a place of protection for each family member. Individuals of different age ranges have particular needs from their relatives. Berger’s (2010) study found the following:
Children thrive if families function for them in five ways: 1. Provide basic necessities. Children aged 6 to 11 can eat, dress, wash, and sleep without help, but someone must provide food, clothing, and shelter. 2. Encourage learning. School-age children must master academic and social skills. Families can support and guide their education, via parent–teacher communication, homework help, and so on. 3. Instill self-respect. As they become cognitively mature, school-age children are self-critical and socially aware. Families help them feel competent and capable. 4. Nurture peer relationships. School-age children need friends. Families can provide the time and opportunity to form friendships by arranging play dates and other...