Rise of Modern Turkey
Ottoman Empire also known as “Sultanat e Osmania” or Ottoman Turkish Empire was the largest Muslim empire ever established. Its territories were spread across Europe, Asia and Africa. In short the largeness of the Ottoman Empire could be judged from the fact that modern day Turkey, Greece, Romania, Bosnia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Armenia, Georgia, Albania and Cyprus were all the parts of European Ottoman territories. On the other hand Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine were all parts of Middle Eastern Ottoman territories while Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Algeria were the ottoman territories in Africa. It was a major hindrance for the European intrusion of Asia and Africa. It stood like a giant that was unbeatable for more than 750 years. But with the passage of time it grew weaker and weaker and ended in a sorrowful demise after the end of World War 1 under the auspices of lethal treaties of Sevres and Versailles. Establishment of Ottoman State:
In 1290 AD, after the fall of Seljuk Roman Empire, Turkish tribes under the leadership of Osman Bey founded a Turkish state in the north-western Anatolia which was later on known as Ottoman Turkish Empire named after its first sultan. Sultan Bey extended borders of the state towards the edge of Byzantium (Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire). After death of Sultan, his son Orhan captured the north-western Anatolian city of Bursa in 1324 and made it capital of ottoman state. This turned out to be the start of the fall of Byzantium. Now the Ottoman territories started expanding into mainland Europe with the subjugation of Balkans and Serbian Empire.
Evolution to an Empire:
As the territories of Ottoman Sultan started growing in Europe and Middle East, the Ottoman state evolved to become Great Ottoman Turk Empire with a magnificence parallel to Roman, Greek, Persian and Egyptian Empires. Ottomans captured all the Byzantine lands except Constantinople (Capital of Byzantium). Reason behind this was the chaos which erupted as Tamerlane attacked Ottoman capital in 1402 and captured Sultan Bayazid, the Emperor. After wards when one of his son’s, Sultan Muhammad 1st established the writ of state, the Byzantine campaign regained the momentum. Later on around 1453, Sultan Muhammad 2nd attacked and captured Byzantine capital of Constantinople and hence the last of the major ottoman rivals in Anatolia breathed their last. This left an everlasting impression of Ottoman hegemony over Europe. Further Expansion:
Between 1512 and 1520, Sultan Salim expanded empire most dramatically by defeating the Safavid emperor of Persia and then by annexing Egypt into his empire. Now the Ottomans started competing Portuguese in Africa. Between 1520 and 1566, Suleiman the Magnificent captured Belgrade, conquered most of the Hungarian Empire and then captured Moldova but failed to conquer Austria despite two campaigns over Vienna. This established Ottoman Turks as one of the most celebrated empire across the globe. Their aggressive nature and expansionist approach soon made them the sole power to rule in all the three continents that is Asia, Europe and Africa without any considerable resistance. Revolts and Revival:
Ottomans were ruling a huge empire at the expense of innovation and technological supremacy over other empires. But as the time passed on, the innovation and technological expertise vanished due to religious and intellectual conservatism. Comprehensive defeat at 1683 Battle of Vienna further added to the miseries of already crippling Ottoman takeover of Europe. Confrontation with other Empires:
Discovery of new sea routes by Portuguese and Spanish sailors enabled their empires to avoid Ottoman Seas which weakened their naval resolve. As the Portuguese found a new sea route to India...