Attractions – something that draws people to them.
Permanency – attractions are largely permanent, locations are fixed. Drawing Power – Distance from which attractions draw people. Natural resources – Provide assets to sell to tourists.
Climate – most common marketing them used as the basis for selling a tourism area. (once it has suitable attractions). Culture – Each country has their own unique culture.
Historical Resources – defined into: 1.) war 2.) Religion 3.) habitation 4.) government
Economic impacts of tourism – Tourism effects economy of destination areas. Three categories; 1.) Increasing foreign exchange earnings. 2.) increasing income. 3.) increasing employment. Leakage – occurs first from the cost of goods and services that must be purchased to satisfy the needs of visitors. Increasing income – most common method for estimating income generated from tourism is determining the income multiplier for the destination. Income multipliers measure the mount of local income generated per unit of visitor expenditure. 3 levels of income that must be analyzed: 1.) direction (first round of spending by visitors) 2.) indirect (second round of expenditures by the businesses who receive the first round). 3.) Induced ( the third and subsequent rounds – income). Environmental Impacts – tourism has often been a direct contributor to environmental degradation.
Reasons for government involvement in tourism – First, there are political reasons. Tourism involves travel across national boundaries. Second there are environmental reasons. Tourism is based on such things as the scenery, history, and cultural heritage of destinations. When people make them more acceptable to foreign markets, it messes with that stuff. Third there are economic reasons. Tourism generates income, creates jobs, helps in economic diversification and foreign exchange earnings. To enhance economic advantages government must be involved. Government Roles in tourism – is less developed countries government plays more hands on role in tourism development and operations. 1.) Tourism Coordination
2.) Tourism Policy Setting
3.) Tourism Legislation and Regulation
4.) Tourism infrastructure development - (transportation facilities, other essential services) 5.) Tourism Operations – many govs involved through ownership and operations of certain attractions etc. 6.) Tourism Development Stimulation and Control
7.) Tourism Marketing and Research
8.) Tourism Training and Education
Constraints – External constraints are those outside the direction control of destination, internal constraints can be influenced by the tourism policy.
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – the only official organization that represents governmental interests on a worldwide basis. Agency of United Nations and the leading international organization in the field of tourism.
International Civil Aviation Organization – made up of representatives from the governments of approximately 190 contracting states. The principle task is to promote worldwide civil aviation. Established objectives: Safety, Security, Environmental Protection, Efficiency, Continuity, and Rule of Law.
World Travel and Tourism Council – provides a forum for business leaders in the travel and tourism industry.
National Tourism Organizations – the tourism policy of a country is developed and implemented by its national tourism administration and/or its national tourist office. Official national bodies that is responsible for the development and marketing of tourism in specific countries. Can be: Part of the civil service system as an independent ministry. Second, can be a governmental agency. Third, can be quasi-public government-funded commission, board, or authority. Lastly it can be a private association indirectly supported by government funding.
Government role in controlling tourism – one of...