Urbanization is the
increase in the
proportion of people
living in towns and
because people move
from rural areas to
urban areas .This
usually occurs when a
country is still
Causes of Urbanization
• Rural to urban migration is happening on a
massive scale due to population pressure
and lack of resources in rural areas.
• People living in rural areas are “PULLED”
to the city. Often they believe that the
standard of living in urban areas will be
much better in urban areas.
• Natural increase caused by a decrease in
death rates while birth rates remain high.
Effects of Urbanization
• A range of economic, political,social,
cultural and environmental factors affect
• Urbanization is encouraged socially and
culturally through the media
• Cities have a strong socio-cultural impacts on
their surrounding rural areas. The mass media
depicts city life as superior to rural life, the
“STANDARD” language is deemed that of the
national capital, and better services are received
in the city due to its wealth.
• The fertility rate in cities is often lower than in
rural areas due to the absence of agriculture,
the cost of children,food and living space in
cities, and family planning.
• As a city grows, the cost of housing and
infrastructure also grows, since there are less
water, land and building material available,and
greater congestion problems.As a city decays in
this way, governments often do not meet the
service needs of residents and urban
development is dominated by private capital.
• Unemployment grows,as do drug abuse,crime
• Waste are a major problem in
• Air pollution results from overdependence on motorised
transport and from burning of
coal to supply energy.
• Water pollution...