Dr. Kasetchai Laeheem1, Dr. Metta Kuning2, Dr. Nittaya McNeil2 1. Department of Educational Foundation, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkla University 2. Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of Songkla University.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to study the technique for identifying bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,440 students. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. In this study, factor analysis and standardized score techniques were used to identify bullying outcome. It was found that 301 (20.9%) students could be identified as a bully. Witnessing parental physical abuse and preference for action cartoons were major risk factor for bullying others. Students having parental physical abuse experiences were more likely to bully others than were those who had never witnessed parental physical abuse (odds ratio 7.11, 95% confidence intervals 5.26-9.60). Students who preferred action cartoons tended to bully more than did students who preferred comedy cartoons (odds ratio 2.96, 95% confidence intervals 1.99-4.43).
Key words: bullying, cartoon, factor analysis, parental physical abuse, risk factors
The 2nd International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences April 10th, 2010 Faculty of Liberal Arts, Prince of Songkla University Beliefs – Literature – Lifestyle_002
1. Background and significance of problem Bullying behaviour in primary schools is well-known to students, parents, teachers and educational personnel. School bullying is a serious problem which affects students’ quality of life, inflicting psychological, emotional, and physical damage and occurs throughout the world. School bullying can be defined as any negative actions repeatedly inflicted by a stronger student or student gang toward another student (Olweus, 1999). This negative action must be deliberate and carried out with the intent of causing harm to the victim (Farrington, 1993). Bullying might be classified in a variety of ways including physical assaults and psychological or emotional or verbal harassment. Beale (2001) explained that physical bullying is action oriented and intended to intimidate or physically hurt the victim through pinching, pushing, kicking, and hitting, while verbal bullying is using words to humiliate or hurt someone’s feelings through teasing, insulting, or threatening behaviour. The major reasons that children bully others are to enjoy exercising power and status over their victims, boredom, jealousy, attention seeking, showing off, anger, revenge, and selfprotection (Besag, 2006). In this way, bullying eases the way for children to be drawn into a path of delinquency, vandalism and criminality (Junger, 1996). The targets or victims of school bullying are at risk of a variety of negative outcomes. They are more likely than nonvictimized children to become anxious, insecure, lonely, depressed, to be rejected by their peers, drop out of school, feud, or decide to protect themselves by carrying guns/weapons to school (Craig, 1998). There are many causes of bullying, such as domestic violence (Baldry, 2003), preferring cartoon violence (Blumberg, et al, 2008), older students (Wolke et al, 2001), and boys (Mouttapa et al, 2004). Studies have indicated that 38% of students in Netherlands (Veenstra, 2005), 30% in Nigeria (Egbochuku, 2007), 22% in Italy (Gini, 2008), 21% in Canada (Hawkins et al, 2001), 20% in Malaysia (Wan Salwina et al, 2009) and 42% in Thailand (Tapanya 2006).
This study aims to study the technique for identifying bullying outcomes, to investigate the prevalence of bullying and the risk factors associated with bullying in Pattani primary schools, southern...