What factors have led to urban decline? (15)
After the closure of London Dockland’s in 1980, the area was in a near to derelict state as people and businesses quickly moved out of the area. There were a number of causes to the urban decline of London Dockland’s. A number of political factors helped cause the decline. London’s green belt was created in 1947. A green belt is a broad section of land around an area which restricts development and therefore growth, minimising suburban expansion. Therefore, people had to move further away from the Dockland’s area into the country side around London. This resulted in towns and villages growing rapidly beyond it. Further expansion of the city simply “leap frogged” the green belt and moved away from the Dockland’s. In addition to the adding of the London Greenbelt, the government at the time, under Thatcher, can also be blamed for the urban decline of the London Docklands. Thatcher encouraged a “post-industrial” economy directing investment towards the “knowledge economy” such as banking, finance, law etc (all industries that could be footloose) Furthermore investment was directed towards tourism and property. This encouraged post-industrial economy inevitably led to the decline of the Docks as businesses started to relocate/close. Social factors
The urban decline of Liverpool was caused by a number of social factors. After the war, Liverpool city council decided a “clean start” was necessary. All the bombed areas were bulldozed and many of the old Victorian parts of the city were bulldozed. This inevitably causes out-migration. Furthermore, the 1980s riots, most notably the “Toxteth riots,” led to a decline in the area. The area saw huge unemployment in the city and the population halfed as people moved elsewhere for work. The end of the 80s also saw another disaster. During the 1989 FA cup semi final, 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death at Hillsborough.
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